CSE 2014, AIR 222

Here I try to present my Tale of three interviews and with it the things that worked well for me.

June 2012 marked the end of my stint with IT. Having reached hostel in Delhi, where I stayed and studied for civil services 2013, the first realization was that I wasn’t alone in the race and I wasn’t any different. Out of first ten other aspirants I met eight were from IITs and other grand institutions. I mention this as I graduated from Amity University better known for things other than academic. This very fact humbled me and perhaps worked in my favor in long run as it “forced” me not only to work hard but work out of my skin.

The start wasn’t good as I happened to be short of information regarding various aspects about this exam like what subjects to choose as my optional subjects. Taking advice of my seniors I blindly went for two of the most accepted combinations then, Geography and Public administration. I have only UPSC to thank that it reduced optional to one. This decreased my misery to some extent and I selected Geography.

Clearing prelims in first attempt was dream come true for me as even that appeared to be a big task. Then started the real “fun” that lasted for 180 odd days. It was MAINS preparation. Looking at the syllabus I decided that I will make my own study material and not rely on any institute. This was one instinctive decision that helped me a lot over the course of my preparation. As I decided this, many friends and seniors warned against the same. Advices rushed in from all corners and headed in one direction. But I stuck to my decision and had faith in myself. I always told myself that though it was a huge risk, it was worth taking.

In my view the trickiest thing regarding MAINS exam is to understand what the examiner wants from you and once you catch the nerve of UPSC you can clear this exam every time you appear for it. Also you need to focus at each and every thing mentioned in syllabus. Once I was having a casual chat with one of my senior and he advised me to learn the syllabus. This was perhaps the most important thing I did. This also tells that UPSC aspirant should keep his senses open 24*7. You never know which thing might help you later.

My first Mains went quite good and I was confident about clearing it. And so I did but as I came to know later, I had performed very poorly in my optional subject geography scoring 156 out of 500. At the same time I did very well in GS securing 340 marks. This acted as a big boost for my second attempt. My strategy and all the risk I took had paid off, though only partially.

Where I lagged behind from others was the personality test round. My interview went quite well. The board was cordial as they always are. The members had smile on their faces. Later when the marks were disclosed I realized that smile meant something else. I managed a paltry 118 out of 275 while the average marks awarded were 170. This was bound to go against me and I failed to secure any rank.

A new week marked another beginning when I started studying for my second prelims exam. Time was less and hence I did the necessary things and banked on CSAT basically. After the prelims when I checked online answer keys I was in shock to see that I was managing a score that according to many was a borderline score. Next two months till the results were again a tough period. It was very important to maintain focus and study for mains.

I focused on my weaknesses this time around and studied geography the way I studied GS in my first attempt i.e. from internet. Learning from your past mistakes is very important. So is learning from your strengths and building on the already strong foundation. Hence I balanced out GS and geography. Frankly, even before appearing for mains I knew I will clear it and I did.

Now the challenge was to forget the 118 horror. I got 14 odd days to prepare for my second interview and I was very happy with the fact that I do not need to study for more time unnecessarily. Having appeared once, I was confident about doing well in my second personality test. Also there was a feeling that I had already seen the worse last year itself and it could not go below 118 “benchmark”.

The interview went well. Soon results were out and I secured AIR222. I was obviously happy and felt that I must have done well in GS and got the personality test monkey off the back. But a friend of mine somehow came to the conclusion that I must have scored less in interview again. I could not digest the fact as securing 222nd rank prima facie means an all-round score. As it happened out to be I scored second lowest marks (110) in interview amongst selected candidates. What it meant was that I scored heavily in mains (822).

The joy of clearing civil services exam was over powered by the disgust of not getting through the final hurdle yet again. Personality test monkey is yet to get off my back. Having faced the same fate twice, I very well realize that problem is not in the process and I need to work on one last hurdle.

I have always found inspiration from different sources. Here is one of them. “There was a point to prove not to others but to myself”- MSD after winning 2011 WC.  As it stands today with my third prelims already done, I am starting my journey for my third interview. And I am very confident that the “Tale of the third interview” will be different and better from my earlier interviews.

CRUX of the matter:

  • Select optional subject carefully. Go for the subject which you can study without burden.
  • Do not rely on institutes. Make your own way. Back yourself.
  • It is very important to decode thinking of examiner. For example in Ethics, why this question is asked? What should be written to influence him/her the most.
  • Work on your weaknesses before it’s too late.
  • If possible, study from internet. It really worked well for me.
  • There is no fixed format for optional answer writing. Innovate!!!
  • Work on inter-linkages. You cannot study everything under the sun.
  • The most important thing…when we interact, do tell me what wrong I am doing. I need your help 🙂


Public Administration Strategy by Tushar Singla (AIR-86)

Hi friends,

I am sharing few thoughts about how to prepare for Public Administration (PA) optional in CSE. But before that, I want to share my marks in CSE-2014:

Total 956 – written 755 + interview 201

Essay 113

Gs 378 (98,95,81,104)

PA – 263 (160+103)

I will dwell upon PA strategy in detail after giving little bit of factual information about my performance in PA. CSE-2014 was my second attempt. In CSE-2013, I got 172 in Pub Ad (94 + 78). And this improvement in PA was not accidental or by luck, but I was confident that I will get around 100 marks more in PA this year. Yes, PA has become quite dicey in recent years due to its unpredictability and rising difficulty levels, but still there is method to madness.

Also, before starting out, I want to dwell upon whether one should take Public Administration as an optional or not as it may be helpful for many of the aspirants who may be in dilemma about it. While earlier PA was natural choice for aspirants, but in recent years it has become quite a tricky proposition. So, I am narrating both positive and negative aspects of PA as an optional, although balance is slowly tilting in favour of negatives in recent years.


  1. No other optional is as similar to work profile of IAS as PA. So, knowledge of PA immensely helps in one’s understanding about true nature of the job.
  2. New GS syllabus has taken out bits and pieces from many optional subjects, but I still believe PA syllabus has disproportionate overlapping with GS syllabus. Not only GS-2, where 60-70% syllabus is quite similar, but even some portion of GS3 (security, law & order), and substantial portion of GS4 can be prepared alongwith preparation of PA.
  3. Easy availability of material (although it may be biggest headache in PA’s preparation) and coaching & test series


  1. Uncertainty: Biggest negative of PA has become the uncertainty and inherent unpredictability in terms of types of questions asked, answer writing skills and number of marks given in exam.
  2. Scholar approach: Gone are the day when mere rote learning would fetch you good marks in PA. Now, UPSC demands conceptual understanding in PA in a far more refined manner and superficiality will not work anymore.
  3. Maximum marks still not comparable to other optionals: While many optionals have highest marks in range of 325-350, and even more may be, 282 (149+133) is highest marks this year (bravo Harshal), and mine may be second highest as far as I know.

Now, purpose of my write up here is to clear the mist and so much cluttering spread around PA’s preparation and to make you stay away from puerile efforts of going for everything and achieving nothing. Before any prescription, I am spelling out my sources and strategy, if there was any, for PA:

Firstly, I took coaching from Vajiram & Ravi for PA while I was doing job in Noida. The choice for coaching institute was purely for time scheduling reason, and not based on quality of coaching. And I must say, coaching of PA at Vajiram was quite average although I prepared class notes as all others did and it provided me a backup source for quick revision at any time. So, where ever you are taking coaching for PA, stick to it, prepare your class notes and rely on them for quick revision.

Secondly, there are many books in market for PA preparation. In the initial stages of my preparation, I read many books in bits and pieces, be it fadia and fadia, mohit bhattacharya, rajni arora, sharma sidana, maheshwari, class and printed notes from vajiram etc., but it made my preparation chaotic and biggest disadvantage was it deprived me of revision from any one source. So, in my second attempt alongwith my class notes, I made Aribam’s Paper1 and Paper2 as main source and revised both of them 3-4 times between prelims and mains. The most important key is the revision and book like Aribam is the ideal source due to its succinct coverage of syllabus in a comprehensive manner.

Thirdly, for Paper1, along with Aribam, Prasad and Prasad is must read and you should cover every scholar in it even though it may not come under Chapter2. For paper2, in addition to Aribam, Rajni Arora’s Indian Administration is sine qua non. It will provide you comprehensive details about most of the topics in Paper2 and read it as a story book written with lyrical flow rather than bothering about what I will remember or not. It will help you develop an understanding of issues not only from PA’s perspective, but also from overall administrative angle.

Fourthly, many people are asking about which test series to follow for PA. I have attended only Lukmaan Ias test series (karol bagh centre) so can’t have an opinion about other test series’. I wrote only 4 tests out of 14 in tests series and all of these from Paper1 and never wrote anything from paper2 in my preparation cycle in 2 years except 2 UPSC mains paper in Pub Ad (looking at my numbers in PA Paper2 I should have written some tests for Paper2, also it’s not a prescription for skipping writing practice as everybody has different preparation framework).

Despite not writing the full test series, I attended all 14 discussions of PA tests averaging around 4 hours per discussion. Now this 56 hour lecture in PA immensely benefitted me as the diversity, quality, difficulty and innovative level of question papers was quite good and I credit Salamuddin Ansari Sir for covering almost entire syllabus in a comprehensive question answer format in these 56 odd hours. I revised all the test papers and discussion classes during which I constantly wrote whatever was discussed, few times before mains exam. These discussions also changed my thinking process in Pub Ad as well as GS as to how to mould any concept and topic in QA format and quickly write a quality answer in limited time during real examination even if you have not read exactly about the topic (In fact my mains centre was Chandigarh and I came on 10th December to Delhi to attend last discussion of PA)

This combination of class notes, Aribam books, Prasad and Prasad, Rajni Arora, and any one good test series (lukmaan in my case) will substantially cover your syllabus and also simplify and unclog your preparation not only in PA but also in GS. Now, for any additional information on some topics you can always go back to many reports available on internet be it ARC, Punchhi, ministry reports etc, but stick to relevant portion and try to give preference to recommendations of these reports rather than reading every word of reports.

You may have noticed that I have not given chapter to chapter source of books, strategy or preparation schedule as many of you may have expected. It is a conscious choice as my purpose is to make your preparation for PA as simple as possible. I don’t want aspirants to follow some different approach for every chapter and carry different books and sources in your pockets for these like a mechanic carries his tools to repair a destroyed vehicle.  PA is not mathematics and don’t make it one by applying different permutations and combinations for different topics. Prepare it like a story, a well written story whose protagonists have the necessary ability to adapt to changing framework of governance in different contexts.

Answer writing in PA:

After spelling out strategy for PA preparation, I am going to tackle the biggest challenge and sometimes even perceived fear in front of aspirants as to how to write good answers in PA (it may also help in GS).

But I must state here that everybody has different writing style, thought process, level of vocabulary, writing speed, legibility etc. So, there is no strait-jacket way of writing good answers. Personally, I have always been hesitant to write much and as I stated earlier, did not complete even 30% of any test series (both PA and GS). But I made sure that I followed some fundamentals in answer writing and this paid dividends.

There are few prerequisites for following these fundamentals:

  1. One must have basic understanding and knowledge of syllabus
  2. Remember and revise before jumping to answer writing
  3. Evolve some thought process as to how to link different topics with each other and also with current happenings. You can do this by thinking about that topic for as less as 1-2 minutes after reading it.

Now, coming to crux of the matter, what are these fundamentals (in my view):

  1. Understand the core of the question: first step is to carefully read and understand every word of the question. You should immediately know from what part of the syllabus the question is coming and what concept to apply, what inter-linkage to be done, and if possible how relevant the question is in practicality in current setting.
  2. Structuring of question: Many people are frightened to see the lengthy question and they jump to single sentence questions. But irony is that a long question most of the times presents structuring on platter, while single sentence require some innovation and thinking in structuring. Anyway, formula to know the structuring is to lay out a brief intro about the concept asked, build nice body having relevant content (more on this below) that must underpin and link the conceptual understanding to the context in which that question is asked, and then sum up with nice conclusion having futuristic, optimistic, practical and not overly-ambitious tone.
  3. Relevant content: There is difference between content and relevant content. While with decent preparation every aspirant can fill 1 or 2 pages for any question but point is whatever we are writing must be asked in question. It’s very good to expand and pay homilies to all and sundry but examiner will give no quarter if you are deviating from the question.
  4. How to write answers when you have not read that topic: In recent PA papers in UPSC, some questions were asked from topics that are very abstract and seem unimportant. Now, good answers still can be written in those questions if you understand the context in which the question has been asked and can apply conceptual understanding . E.g. In this year’s exam I attempted question on governance theory & notion of governmentality without mentioning name of Foucalt even once in answer as I did not know that it was given by him. Same goes with the strategic contingency theory question. But I knew the conceptual difference between theoretical perspective of governance and notion of governments in real time scenarios (this comes from extensive reading). In same way, I knew the concept of contingency theory and question demanded its application in a strategic manner which is again relevant in present economic, political, foreign policy context. I hope you people understand the subtlety in PA answer writing.
  5. Conclusion: Every answer needs a perfect end and good conclusion is beneficial in fetching more marks although not mandatory. But your conclusion must not look separate from your whole answer and must not look like that you have written it for the sake of writing a conclusion. In fact this happened with me to some extent in both essays when I look back in hindsight and it led to below average marks in essay (113).
  6. Capital letters, underline, legibility etc: I have never used unnecessary highlighting of answers, never reproduced statements of scholars verbatim as I never remembered them, never underlined the sentences in answers, and I have quite a poor handwriting. But despite these things, I scored good marks in mains. So, my personal belief is that UPSC examiner does read the answers comprehensively although all these special effects may enhance one’s marks by extra 10-20. But, I was too lazy to apply these. So, if you are habitual to these then well and good.

I have spelled out PA strategy in a manner that I thought would be useful to you although I could have made it more detailed, extensive, topic or chapter wise but these strategies are already available in previous years blogs of toppers and you can read, adapt, synchronize and follow any or all of these strategies according to your wisdom. I also admit that this write up may be far from comprehensive for PA preparation. But the purpose of your preparation in PA should be to aid your overall examination preparation and not to reach a condition where you have to choose between optional and other components of exam while preparing. So, keep calmness and simplify your process, and you are not left behind if you have skipped any one source which others may be following. Have faith in yourself, and have guts to choose your own path.

If still, you have any doubt, comment or drop a message here or on facebook, I will try to answer your queries.

In the end, I convey my best wishes to civil service aspirants and pray to Almighty that you may achieve your dreams.

Best of Luck!!!

How to crack Civil Services Examination : A holistic view ( Nishant Jain Rank 13, Hindi Medium Topper)

Nishant Jain

Rank 13, CSE-2014

First Rank in Hindi/Indian languages medium

In my opinion, Civil Services Examination requires a certain level of maturity and approach. Some students achieve this level at an early age like 22-23 and some achieve it very late. All this depends on our whole upbringing, studies and experience.

In present scenario, when UPSC examination question papers have become very dynamic and innovative, aspirants are also supposed to develop some skills and qualities in them like:-

  1. Integrated Approach
  2. Balanced View
  3. Respecting other’s views
  4. Open-mindedness
  5. Creativity
  6. Writing skills and command over language
  7. Self confidence
  8. Communication skills
  9. Well-arranged thought process
  10. General reading habit

So far as my understanding and area of interest is concerned, I had a keen interest in some areas like-language, literature, culture and philosophy since my student life. Three principles of Indian philosophy became my life changing principles:-

  1. Nishkam Karma Yoga (disinterested action) from Gita
  2. Anekantvad (non-absoluteness) from Jainism
  3. Madhyam Marga (Middle Path) from Buddhism

These three great principles not only help us in our everyday life but also in our UPSC preparation.

Let us talk about prelims first. Preliminary examination of Civil Services is the toughest examination in fact. But it can be handled with some certain techniques like:-

  1. Remaining calm and stress-free on and before this one day examination,
  2. Again Nishkam Karmyoga helps a lot, when you focus on your action only and don’t get attached with the result, you have a psychological edge over other candidates.
  3. Handling negative marking is the key to crack the prelims. There is no substitute of practice while preparing for this phase of Civil Services Examination. Please take help of various test papers.
  4. For qualifying this phase, a candidate must be a keen learner. Diversified study and awareness pays a lot. When we make our area of study comprehensive and become able to connect various segments of General Studies with one another, we get an edge over others.
  5. Always try to learn and attain knowledge. For example, while travelling in metro or on roads, don’t ignore government advertisements like on education, health and taxes etc. Likewise, we must be familiar with AIR, PIB, India portal and other Government media.

Now the most important phase of this examination, Mains Examination begins. Mains examination is the key to achieve final success in this Civil Services Examination. One cannot rely upon Interview but one can give his best for Mains Examination to make the dream come true. I would like to suggest some techniques for Mains also:-

  1. Respecting Other’s views:- When we are open minded and we believe that other’s views are also correct to some extent, then the chances of improving quality of our answers rise for sure. This approach is relevant for all the mains papers including GS- IV (Ethics) and Essay.
  2. Integrated and Comprehensive Approach:- Remaining dependent only on text books and coaching notes will not help. Our approach must be comprehensive and multi-dimensional. Looking things in totality and trying to find a relation among them, pays a lot.
  3. Writing Skill and Command over language:- After 2013, Mains Examination pattern is changed. Question papers are very less traditional and more dynamic. Merely following text books does not pay much. In this situation, the importance of writing skills and language has drastically risen. I have found this thing common among maximum toppers that they had command over the language they opted as their medium and they had excellent writing skills also.

I would also like to add here that if you opt Hindi or any other Indian language as your medium, please make sure that you have command over that particular language and you are able to write well in that language without grammatical errors.

  1. General Reading Habit:- In this age of information revolution and media, our general reading habit other than text books has fallen drastically. If one wants to score extraordinary marks, one must expand his area of reading like books of general interest and magazines like Reader’s Digest, Kadambini (Hindi ) and Aha Zindagi (Hindi) etc. Through this way, our answers become more diversified, comprehensive and interesting particularly in Ethics and Essay.
  2. Essay and Ethics are the game changers:- When you analyze the mains mark sheets, you find that these two papers; GS IV and Essay give marks that are very fluctuating. In Essay, one can get only 50 marks and other one can fetch even more than 150 marks also out of 250 marks. Fortunately, I got 160 marks in essay paper which is probably the highest score. This makes a huge difference. Same is with GS IV. Some candidates get 60-70 marks while some others get 110-120 marks out of 250. It is very clear that if you want to get a good rank, you will have to pay due importance to both of these papers.

Unfortunately, candidates ignore these papers. Some students write their first essay directly in the Examination hall. Please don’t do this. Try to practice more and more for Essay and Case study (GS-IV).

For Essay, I would suggest some points again:-

(i)                Essay must be systematic and a well arranged thought process must be reflected in it.

(ii)             There must be a flow in whole the essay. There must be a clear connection among the two consecutive paragraphs.

(iii)           The range of an essay must be wide and comprehensive. Various aspects like-historical, social, economic, cultural, geographical, philosophical and political, must be discussed during the development of the essay.

(iv)           There must be  a visionary introduction in the beginning in one or two paragraphs. The Essay must be concluded with a clear conclusion. The another angle of the topic must also be discussed before conclusion of possible.

Finally, I would like to share some tips for Interview :-

(i)                You are what you are. So don’t try to become like others. Be natural remain calm.

(ii)             Never bluff. Don’t try to befool the board at any cost.

(iii)           Listen to the board with patience. Start answering only after they conclude their question.

(iv)           Again try to follow the principles of  middle path and respecting other’s views.

(v)             Be humble and a keen learner so that they may indentify whether you are trainable or not.

          I would also like to share some tips for Hindi/ Indian Language medium candidates:-

I have felt on many occasions, that candidates who prepare with medium of Hindi or other Indian languages, feel lack of confidence. I would like to suggest some points for them:-

(i)    Please don’t feel yourself loose confident. Think well, write well and answer well without any hesitation.

(ii) Please try to improve writing skills. For this, command on your own language is required.

(iii)  Linguistics and Psychology say that studying in your own language makes you understand the things better. You have original ideas and thoughts. Use them and have edge over others. Fortunately, I got 851 marks in Mains which is the third highest score.

(iv)  Please avoid grammatical errors in your language.

(v)    English is not a language which is too difficult to learn. Please don’t make English a barrier in your journey. Try to remain in touch with English sources like newspapers, TV/Radio discussions and websites.

In the end, I want to share some General Tips for the whole process of preparation and also for life:-

(i)            Have confidence in yourself.

(ii)           Never, Never, Never give up!

(iii)           If possible, try to gain employability before entering into this long preparation process so that you may join any respectable employment in case of failure in the Civil Services examination. This also helps in remaining a person pressure-free during the preparation.

(iv)           Your family and friends play a very important role in your life and your preparation. So don’t ignore them. I would also advise to remain in touch with those persons who have a positive energy and motivational force in them.

(v)             Try to retain the things which you have studied and revised. “It is better to read one book for ten times than to read ten books for one time.”

(vi)           “Your life is your message to the world. So, try to make it inspiring.”



My Mains Marksheet

Essay – 160 Marks.

General Studies – 378 Marks (89+88+77+124).

Optional Subject – Hindi Literature – 313 Marks (166+147)

Total Marks in Mains – 851 Marks.

Personality Test – 150 Marks.

Total Marks – 1001 Marks.

Maths Optional Strategy (Bhavesh Mishra, Rank 58)

Why Maths?

Simply because it is one of the best performing optional subject in UPSC.

  1. Extremely high scoring: If you get your maths optional right then you will make it to the final list. This year Nitish K (Rank 8 ) has got a mind boggling 346 marks.
  2. Certainty: If you have attempted your paper well then you are sure that you will get good marks. For example this year just by attempting 400 marks paper you could get a decent 260+ marks. Even if you don’t get good marks in first attempt you can be sure that you will increase your marks in subsequent attempt.
  3. Fun: Mathematics is a delightful subject and therefore doing maths takes you away from somewhat boring humanities.
  4. Good Impression: The fact that you have taken Maths makes a good impression on interview board members (it happened in my case !). They are very pleased to see that you have opted for a tough optional.
  5. Easy paper: The difficulty level of paper is quite moderate and almost all questions are directly picked from the standard textbooks.

Who should take it?

Anyone who has done B.Tech / M.Tech / B.Sc / M.Sc and has interest in maths.

Myths around science subjects.

Coaching institutions have mastered the art of brainwashing students and creating an atmosphere of gloom and doom around science subjects. There are lots of myths circulating among students. Let’s bust these myths.

  1. Maths optional is only for students from IITs: Definitely not. Anyone willing to put in hard work can easily score very high marks. The best example being Nitish K (Rank 8) who is not from any IIT.
  2. There is heavy scaling: Let the data speak for itself. I attempted 240 marks in Paper 2 and got 170 marks. Now would you call it a scaling?
  3. It plays no role in GS: Yes it’s true that science optional subjects don’t overlap with GS but it’s equally true that GS has never been a rank decider in UPSC. There are 3 major things that decides your rank: Essay, Optional and Interview. Even if one puts in 2-3 years of efforts in GS the advantage in terms of marks would be around 30 marks or so but 1 year of dedicated effort in maths would give you 50+ marks advantage straightaway.

Do’s and Dont’s

  1. Practice, Practice and Practice. The key to success in maths is filling up as many notebooks as you can during the preparation stage. The more you sweat during preparation the less you will bleed in the battlefield !
  2. Don’t read maths book / notes like GS. It is a recipe for disaster. Rather always study with pen, paper and calculator.
  3. While solving examples don’t jump to see solution first. Try giving your best shot and after making sure that you are not able to solve it using your present knowledge then only look at the answer. This will ensure better retention.
  4. Generally we make lots of silly mistakes while solving a question. It is best to catch these errors early and not repeat them in exam hall. The best strategy for this is to maintain a notebook of errors that you usually commit and their mitigation measures. For example, I commit a lot of mistakes when doing Integration by parts and usually the error involves missing negative (-) sign etc. Therefore whenever I come across such type of question I try to devote extra 1 minute to re-check all my steps.
  5. maths.stackexchange.com is the best online resource for preparation. You can create an account and get your maths questions answered within minutes.

Why did I score only 262?

Among all the students in the final list who had maths as an optional, I have scored the least. My paper – 1 was a complete disaster and I only scored 92 marks in it. In fact I could only attempt 160 marks paper and had to leave 90 marks paper completely.

The reasons for the above situation in Paper – 1 are as follows:

  1. Lack of written practice: In many topics (especially statics and dynamics) I used to just look at a question and its solution without solving it first. As a result I forgot the exact method in the exam hall !
  2. Left many topics: I prepared only 25% 3-D, 80% Calculus and 25% Statics & Dynamics and had to pay a heavy price in the exam.

On the other hand my preparation for paper – 2 was excellent and therefore I scored an amazing 170 marks in it 🙂

Topic Wise Detailed Plan of Action

Paper – 1

Linear Algebra

  • Difficulty: 2 / 5
  • If you have not studied it before then you will take sometime in getting used to Vector Space nomenclature. Rest all topics are straightforward.
  • The questions on Diagonalization are lengthy and therefore there are chances of committing errors.

3 Dimesional Geometry

  • Difficulty: 4 / 5
  • I found this topic difficult as the syllabus is vast and questions are very lengthy and difficult.
  • In many questions we simply have to mug up the method of doing questions.
  • The best way to prepare is to revise it as many times as possible. Simply doing it one or two times will not help.

Ordinary Differential Equation

  • Difficulty: 2.5 / 5
  • The number of methods to solve a question is overwhelming !
  • Differential equation with variable coefficient is the most difficult part from this section.
  • All questions from Raisinghania book must be done thoroughly.


  • Difficulty: 2 / 5
  • Single variable calculus is similar to what we prepare for JEE exam.
  • The questions on surface of revolution etc are lengthy.

Vector Analysis

  • Difficulty: 1.5 / 5
  • The most scoring portion in paper – 1
  • There are only 4 theorems and all the questions in the exam come directly from Krishna series book.

Statics & Dynamics

  • Difficulty: 2 – 4
  • If you are covering this topic from 10 marker point of view then it should not pose any problem.
  • However, covering it completely requires a lot of time as the questions are very lengthy.

Paper – 2

Modern Algebra

  • Difficulty : 4.5 / 5
  • The most difficult part of the exam.
  • If you are new to this topic then you will not understand even 10% of what is going on initially. It’s a completely different ball game altogether.
  • Mastering this topic is not at all easy.
  • However, the 10 markers are easy and can be prepared easily.

Real Analysis

  • Difficulty: 3 / 5
  • It has a huge syllabus but questions asked are relatively easy and repeated.
  • Sometimes questions from topology comes and we have left with no option but to leave it.

Partial Differential Equation

  • Difficulty: 3 / 5
  • Methods are quite similar to Ordinary Differential Equations.
  • Requires lots of practice especially in Charpit’s method (although officially it is not part of the syllabus).

Complex Analysis

  • Difficulty: 1.5 / 5
  • One of the easiest and highly scoring part.

Numerical Analysis

  • Difficulty: 1 / 5
  • Easiest portion of the syllabus.
  • No brainer 🙂

Linear Programming

  • Difficulty: 1.5 / 5
  • Very easy topic. Only Simplex method questions tend to be lengthy.


  • Difficulty: 2 – 4 / 5
  • If one prepares from 10 marker point of view then it is not that difficult.
  • However, covering it completely is a difficult task.

Fluid Mechanics

  • Difficulty: 3.5 / 5
  • A difficult topic for those who have not studied Fluid Mechanics earlier
  • In case of time crunch it should be prepared with 10 markers point of view.

Answer Writing (Ananya Mittal – Rank 85)

Today we will talk about how to practice answer writing for GS. Again I would like to caution you that this was completely my style, according to my conditions and availability of time. Other candidates have prepared it differently also resulting in good score. So, analyse and adopt strategies which suit you.

I rate answer writing as the most important part of the Mains examination. Don’t think that since we have been writing subjective exams from our childhood days, it will not be difficult to manage during examination.

Remember and practice the following points:

First – Many aspirants, from the very first day, start asking teachers for questions. Have patience, let your preparation reach upto a level where you feel confident with some topics, then start with answer writing practice. (I started GS coaching in July 2013 and I started answer writing practice in February 2014, when the GS classes were about to get over).

Second – Start giving time to writing practice daily for around 30-60 minutes.

Third – Pick random questions from websites (I preferred www.insightsonindia.com) and try to tackle the questions. (I am using the word ‘tackle’ because during examination you will experience questions which were not a part of your preparation. So, you cannot ‘answer’ them, you can only ‘tackle’ them to the best of your capabilities)

Fourth – My belief is that it is difficult for a teacher to check 100 copies and read 25 answers per copy every day. So, try to write the answer from a teacher’s perspective. He/she would want to see answers written neatly, with headings, important points underlined and all parts of a question addressed specifically. No examiner will try to find whether the aspirant has written a certain point in the answer. You must make important points visible for the examiner.

Fifth – Your answers must be well structured.


Don’t write the body straight away. I prefer to begin the answer with definition of the core idea mentioned in the question. Please refrain from using flowery language and avoid redundant words and sentences.

For example

Infrastructure is the capital asset of a nation. They help in providing employment and income to the population. Infrastructure is a must for any nation’s economic growth. They can be classified into soft and hard infrastructure. (This is good but)

Infrastructure is the capital asset of a nation which helps in its economic growth by providing employment to the population and helps in provision of various amenities such as waste management, transport and communication, tourism, education, health and sports which can be further classified into soft and hard infrastructure. (Here I have tried to squeeze in whatever I have studied in the chapter ‘Infrastructure’ into one sentence with the help of connectors – which, by, and etc) – It reduces redundant sentence/words and keeps the reader engaged.


It is the most important part of any answer. While reading a question derive the number of parts that it contains, i.e.,  what all has the examiner asked from you.

After writing the Introduction straightaway address the first part of the question in  form of a heading and write the relevant points below it (in form of a paragraph or in form of bullets – that’s your personal choice – idea is to keep the answer neat, visible and to write fast). I prefer bullets and numbers for all the subjects except for ethics and social issues.

Similarly, address all the parts of the question separately.


End with your own view. I prefer writing a balanced view after analyzing all the angles, with a futuristic view. Don’t conclude with false assumptions and impractical suggestions. Simply write what you consider right and appropriate.

Sixth – For answer writing take your tests seriously. Again, joining a test series for Mains is entirely up to you. Many candidates clear this exam without writing even a single mock test. But if you doubt yourself then I would suggest you to join one. Take the tests in exam conditions – no institute keeps a check on if you are returning the test paper within the time limit or not. Its your duty to practice time management. When you get back your corrected answer sheets, analyse the comments made by examiner. Observe where you lack  and eliminate those mistakes for your next test. It doesn’t matter which test series you join. Take any and sincerely utilise it.

Seventh- Time Management while writing answers


I tried to write all the answers with an average of 7 minutes per answer. Now the method I am going to tell you is very mechanical. (I used to face a lot of problem in completing all 25 questions and I knew that somehow I have to attempt all. So, during mock tests I devised this method).

I used to make a chart after entering into the exam hall – example –

1st  – 9:00 to 9:07

2nd  – 9:07 to 9:14

Till 25th – 11:51 to 11:58

After completing each question I used to strike off the question number in the chart. This chart gave me an idea if I am running late or not. By what time I should complete, lets say, the 10th question. A sense of loss of time makes you nervous at crucial moments. So, if you have this chart, you remain a bit relaxed and assured of the remaining time.

Eighth – Always underline important points. Just the phrase or the word but not the complete sentence.

Ninth –

For ethics I preffered writing in paragraphs, but for case studies I followed a different structure. The structure goes as follows –

First heading – Issue/Dilemma/ Problem

Second Heading – Stakeholders Involved

Third Heading – Options available

Fourth Heading – Evaluation of those options – which consists the effect of each option available on each of the stakeholder.

Fifth Heading – Conclusion or the most suitable step which can be adopted.

We all know the ethical and moral stand, but what makes your answer distinct is the treatment. While watching a singing reality shows sometimes we think – this singer is not able to catch the sur (note), so for each subject you must catch it’s sur. It must look like an answer for the ethics subject. Use the ethical principles like honesty, sympathy, compassion and constitutional principles like rule of law, right to equality etc to give that charm to your answer.

Answer writing is not as difficult as it sounds. It looks difficult only because we know that we are not devoting time for it. Practice it for a month continuously. You will definitely feel the change.

How I used to Practice?


I started answer writing practice in February 2014 when my GS classes were about to get over. Everyday I only used to practice writing the bullet points and frame a definition in my mind for introduction paragraph for 9-10 questions posted by www.insigtsonindia.com, but I never wrote complete answers at home. They post these questions daily  from the day’s newspapers. My strategy was to frame at least 7-8 points for each question. If I used to fall short of points, I tried to consult my friends and teachers for some more points. I did this for two months religiously and left it when prelims were approaching. It was a 45-60 minutes daily exercise.

After prelims I joined Vision IAS test series for general studies and tried to apply my learning during the tests. I gave importance to the comments I got from the examiner and constantly tried to refine my answer writing skills.

For case studies (ethics) I consulted Lexicon book and devised the above mentioned structure after reading 8-9 examples.

I will deal with answer writing for Geography optional in a separate post.


(Ananya Mittal Rank-85 CSE, 2014)

The chronicles of Doodlebean and Public Administration 

“…an optional is an optional
Neither it is yours nor mine
If it’s yours it will be a cause of worry
If it’s mine it is a cause of pain again..”

This is an eternal,omnipotent and omnipresent truth in case of Public Administration in the post-2011 era of UPSC.

It all started in 2010 when I used to attend the Public Administration classes of Vajiram and Ravi. Believe me Mr. Rajesh Gupta is a Master of the subject. Still there was a void.. A sense of vacuum ..like… Concepts ko samajh rahe the lekin yaad nahi ho raha tha.. There were so sooo many thinkers.. Kisko yaad kare, kya yaad kare??

Then a class test was announced and I scored shamefully low. All determined to change my optional but Gupta Sir suggested some improvements. I decided to give it a last shot and.. Bang! I was among the Top 5 in those gargantuan batches of Vajiram. My batchmate then n today even — Mr Kapil Joshi can corroborate the same. 🙂

The art of inter-relation,  co-relation, making diagrams, extracting case studies etc…. I developed these over the last 4 years.. Will be dealing with them in the following write up.

Let me take a pause to clarify a few things —

1) Regarding the new syllabus or the leaked syllabus –
The biggest libraries of the most famous colleges of Delhi University are incapable to address the requirements of the novel thinkers. I am working on the same. Will update soon.

2)Don’t ignore the basic syllabus at all. Likh lo.. Note kar lo. As u know UPSC is unpredictable,  I will not be amazed if December 2015 will bring a pleasant surprise for pub adm optional people.

3) Will take up your queries here and there in the blog. Hope this approach helps everyone.

Query 1
” I finally got the IIPA Journal’s gist book, yay or nay?
Or what about the art of answer writing in this era of vagueness?? “ — Pranjal Singh

Ek baar mere Mentor bole the — ” Doodle! Mujhe ye mat btaao ki tumhaare paas kitni kitaabein hai yaa kitne journals tumhaari library mein hai.. Ye btaao ki tum kitna yaad rakh sakti ho??”
Remember Mahatama Gandhi –Trusteeship Theory–the amount of property which is of your immediate use belongs to you. For the rest you are just a trustee. For instance,  if you can use Former CAGs statement  from these IIPA articles in any of your answers THEN IT’S WORTH IT OTHERWISE NOT.

Aisa kuch hota hi nahi hai. Achhe resources padhiye. Zyaada se zyaada retain kariye. Newspaper ki case studies ka istemaal kariye. Ek diary maintain kariye jisme most important two liners likhiye jise alternate days par revise kare.Diagrams bnaaiye. STRUCTURED ANSWERS likhiye jo practice se hoga. Will upload some of my answers in the next session.

Let us assemble the resources first
-Rajesh Gupta Sir – Class notes
-Radhabinod Aribam book for paper 1 and 2
-Shubhra Saxena Super 50
-Mohit Bhattacharya New Horizons
-Nicholas Henry -selected readings
-ASPA journals – pick up as per your retention power
-IAS Portal monthly pub adm magazine
-IJPA journals
-Case studies from THE HINDU,  INDIAN EXPRESS
-Rajni Goyal

Query 2
“Write about Paper 2 answer writing, where to find examples and case studies to quote??
Should we relate concepts of Paper 1 in Paper 2?” –Harshini Gopal

In the Newspapers there are numerous case studies which come on a daily basis..See!! If an article comes on the op-ed page that DBT has not worked properly in Kotkasim District then you can pen down the same in your diary with 1-2 reasons and reproduce the same in the Policy Implementation question in the exam..Or an article on the legacy of the PSUs.. Learn 2-3 facts like how much employment they provide,  contribution in GDP and it will lead to an increment in the quality of your answer… Or if a news item on page 2 that a ‘transparency mela’ is being organised in so n so district of Rajasthan then you can mention it as a new experiment in social auditing.

Paper 1 and 2 have to be necessarily interlinked in order to fetch good marks.

Query 3
“Another important aspect is Contemporary Thinkers.. Now questions are framed from new thinkers presenting pub adm paper in foreign universities..?? “
–Ram Naresh Sikaria

Exactly.. I’m working on the same.. Will update on that..Simultaneously keep referring to ASPA.They do contain many contemporary thinkers.

Query 4
“Add relevant points for general studies paper 2 in comprehensive manner if syllabus wise its good” — Yogesh Unde

Sirji I’ve already covered the same in my blog

One of the most frequently asked questions is — “Yaad nahi rehta..kya kare?”
Seriously I never had a jadhi-booti for the same.. But I would like to ask – “kabhi kisi se mohabbat ki hai?” Jise hum yaad rakhna chaahe wo yaad rehta hai.. Infact din-raat wahi yaad rehta hai… Uski pasand naapasand(Critical analysis),  quotes and quotations etc.. Isliye ek baat ka dhyaan rakhna.. Only one case study which you have retained and able to reproduce successfully in the examination hall can raise the bar of your answer to an unprecedented level.

Query 5
“Please focus on Paper 2 answer writing and relevant current affairs material “ — Dr Bhagi Manda
I’ll be sharing some sample answers in the next round.
Refer IJPA JOURNALS and IAS PORTAL magazine for current affairs update on pub adm.

Query 6
“For once n all tell us whether we should read less and think more in pub adm or should expand our study material? “ Ankur Kumar

Don’t go beyond the resources which I have mentioned above. No need actually… Regardin thinking.. YES! Start inter-relating chapter 1 and chapter 2 or chapter 9.. I can swear on that front that co-relation exists. It’s just that we need to work a little harder.

Query 7

I have joined coaching for pub ad. Please share how to make the most of it.

I am able to grasp all the concepts but while writing answers i am not able to understand what is a correct, good or very good answer. 

for examples:
1. a commit bureaucracy is not suitable for democracy. commet.
ans: I will explain what is commit bureaucracy, explain that bureaucracy is to provide stabilty and continuity. should be politically neutral to provide a balance in polity. ex of contrast in ideology of BJP and CPM and an IAS has to implement their policy as an instrument.
other side of argument in brief: +ve of commit bureaucracy ex of china.(unable to think of flowchart or diagram)

2. field of pa is field of business(wilson). comment.
ans: briefly mention that during times of wilson american administration was facing issues of corruption red tapsim etc. he wanted admn to be separated from hurry and strife of politics.
mention about similarities in public and pvt admin.
other side: in developing countries like india equity more imp than efficiency. we need bussiness but more of welfare.
briefly mention the difference in public and private admn.

Please let me know how to improve my answer writing skill. I am writing daily but not seeing much improvement in the presentation and quality.“–ksonu

Aapke answers kharab nhi hai bilkul bhi.
The most amazing part of the framework which you have provided is that you have grasped the essence of the questions asked…not an easy job,i must say!!

The deficiency stays in presentation – diagrams and flowcharts
Content: case studies or examples from present day India. For eg the recent initiative of O&M in the country which are directing pub adm towards business like approach.

Query 8

doodlebean for starters, kindly share the secret James Bond books that you referred and plz plz plz oh Lord(ess?) write answer to the questions that you attempted whatever you remember that you wrote.

Kindly provide guidance towards answer writing and how should paper I be tackled owing to the vague questions that came 2014 year.

What are you expecting in 2015?

Will you keep helping us from Academy also? 

Would you ask the other toppers too to come up and save the lesser mortals like me?— PS10000

Resources share kiye hai maine upar.
Detailed answers are already there on the pub adm paper discussion thread on forum.
2015 will bring a pleasant surprise — gut feeling.
I will — Doodle promise.

A request to the other toppers.. Please come forward and assist the pub adm juntaa…

READ-REVISE-REPEAT-READ…. should be your motto for the next few months..

Miles to go. Milestones to achieve.

Jai hind.Jai Bharat.

Electrical Engineering Strategy for CSE Mains

Electrical Engineering Strategy- by Neelabh Saxena, Aman Mittal, Anunaya Jha

For Electrical Engineering, Prakash Rajpurohit Sir’s (AIR-2 in CSE-2009) blog has all the relevant information.

Following is the link.



With additional inputs from my side I am also writing the strategy I followed in my preparation.

  • Theory and numericals both are scoring. Attempt theory as well if you are stuck in numericals i.e. not able to solve them or having paucity of time in completing the question paper. Just give small examples in your theory answers say a small RC circuit or any gate to emphasize your point made in theory.
  • But one needs to understand that Electrical Engineering requires a lot of effort. The syllabus is vast and many books need to be prepared for the completion of the course. However, the needs of UPSC Civil Services Exam are not very stringent and only basic knowledge of the topics mentioned in the syllabus will be sufficient to score well in this examination.
  • At the beginning, I would strongly suggest the aspirants to go through the papers of previous years and ascertain the level of difficulty for themselves. It would be useful if the aspirants actually try an attempt one of the papers to see their comfort level with the topics they may have already covered in the college. It is not necessary that you may have excellent grades in the college, but a general interest in the subject is necessary to overcome the rigors of the syllabus over the period of preparation.
  • In my personal opinion, the optional papers of electrical engineering are similar over a period of time. The questions are generally similar, with many repetitions over a period of time. The papers of the last 10 years are a pointer to the same.
  • Another point of note is that UPSC will never tend to ask extremely difficult or out of course questions. This makes this optional more predictable with a higher probability of scoring in the upper spectrum.
  • The most important thing is the use of internet for the course. There are many topics which seem extremely difficult and have not been done in college graduation, especially those in digital communication, coding theory etc. For this, I would advise the use of electrical lectures available at NPTEL. For communications part, I used to refer to the site http://www.radio-electronics.com. Another useful site for electrical engineering is the http://www.electrical4u.com .
  • Given the nature of the exam, I strongly suggest to all the aspirants to at least cover the syllabus once, and prepare the previous year’s papers even if the detailed strategy as provided later is not doable.
  • The solutions for the previous years ESE papers is also a useful asset for the aspirants as it covers almost the entire spectrum of the course.
  • The book list given below is not the only source. Try to cover the subjects from books you have studied in your college and keep these books as reference only.


  • Circuit theory, signals and systems, digital electronics, EM theory, Analog communication are easy to cover and scoring as well. You should try to cover all topics in these subjects. Start your preparation with these subjects if you are an Electronics and Communication Engineer like me.
  • Circuit theory should be conceptually very clear. Don’t get confused by the circuit conventions of different books, stick to your conventions and answer will always be the same. The fundamentals of solving a circuit are very relevant in other subjects like analog electronics, EMT, Analog communication, machines. So be thorough with this subject to do well in numericals.
  • Analog electronics will require conceptual clarity. Millman Halkias is a very good book but time taking. Go for it if you have sufficient time in hand. Cover op-amps from Gaekwad. For basic electronics i.e PN junction and diodes Streetman is very good….read it selectively according to the syllabus.
  • Since the paper is of EE, questions from ECE stream are relatively easy.
  • Electrical Machines- go in depth if you are a core EE. Ashfaq Hussain is a good book. Even for ECE and other background students cover the theory portion, graphs, derivations and basic numericals.
  • Power electronics- cover topics from bhimbra as given in detail below.

Paper 2…

  • Whether you are from EE or any other stream…this paper requires power system and power system protection to be covered in detail. Finish off these subjects at the earliest as they are time taking.
  • For power system Ashfaq Hussain is a good book. Cover it for entire syllabus. Refer Wadhwa if you don’t understand any topic from this book. Cover all derivations as they may be repeated in 2-3 years.
  • Power system protection- TMH book Badriram Vishwakarma is good. Read it properly.
  • Control systems, Measurement are very scoring…practice control questions for last 10 years from IAS/IES papers. Do all bridges and their derivations properly from Sawney selectively sticking to the syllabus. Practice oscilloscope and digital instruments block diagrams.
  • Microprocessor- for 8085 and its peripheral devices do from Gaonkar. Cover it completely.

In 2-3 years questions from 8086 can be asked. DV Hall is a good book or you can read 8086 from any research paper/journal online. But cover 8085 properly.

  • Digital Communication- cover theory and derivations. If numericals come- either they are very easy that can be solved by your theory knowledge else they can’t be solved so no need to go after numericals.

Reproducing Prakash Rajpurohit sir’s blog with my inputs :-

Electrical Engg Strategy

Paper – I

  1. Circuit Theory: In this topic one should be fast in solving problems. Best way to gain speed is to practice regularly from IES papers of both electrical and electronics. Do questions from single IES paper (there are 3-6 questions every year) within time limit.
  2. Signals and systems: Here also speed is important. It is better to make a formula sheet and revise it regularly. For DFT/FFT, refer to Oppenheim’s book on DSP.
  3. M. Theory:Read chapter 6(till 6.29), 7 and 8 from K.D. Prasad. For Smith chart and impedance matching refer Jordan & Balmain. Make the list of formulas and practice all the derivations.Can also go for IES coaching notes for theory.
  4. Analog Electronics: Diode, Transistors and Amplifiers can be done from any book. Topics that are to be covered from JB Gupta or Gaekwad are: Oscillators, Op Amp, Wave shaping circuits, Multivibrators, Waveform Generators and Power supplies.
  5. Digital Electronics: Mano is sufficient for the part of syllabus which it covers. For topic left like Timer (look at chapter on 555 IC Timer), Comparator, S&H circuit refer to JB Gupta.
  6. Energy Conversion: Try to cover everything given in the syllabus from Ashfaq Hussain and make good command over all the numerical given in the book. It covers topic from IES point of view. Do all the questions asked in the IES exams thoroughly.
  7. Power Electronics and Electric Drives: Topics to be covered are Chapter 2(characteristics of diode, BJT, MOSFET, IGBT), chapter 4-Thyrister(complete), chapter 5 – Thyrister commutation techniques (complete), chapter 6 –Phase controlled rectifiers(Leave dual converters), chapter 7- Choppers(Leave Thyrister Chopper circuits and multiphase choppers) , chapter 8 –Inverters(Leave force-commutated thyrister inverters, current source and series inverters) and chapter 12-electric drives(complete). Cover all the derivations (like deriving expressions for particular type of rectifier or inverter) as well as working of circuits.
  8. Analog Communication: Cover chapter 4(AM) and Chapter 5(on FM and PM) from BP Lathi. Random process(chapter 1) can be covered from Haykin. And Noise(chapter 4) can be covered from Singh and Sapre. Also cover AM AND FM practical modulation and demodulation circuits from Singh and Sapre.

Paper II

  1. Control Systems: Nagrath and Gopal is sufficient for all the topics. Practice from previous year IES and CSE papers.
  2. Microprocessors and Microcomputers: Cover chapters 1 to7 and 9, and parts of chapter 8 and 10(from which questions has been asked in IES exams), In peripherals cover 12, 14, 15, 16 (Focus more on whatever has been asked in IES papers).
  3. Measurement and Instrumentation: Cover all the instruments given in the syllabus thoroughly from the Sawhney. Here also guide will be IES questions.
  4. Power Systems: I did this topic from Nagrath and Kothari as I already had covered the book in graduation. Practice solved examples of both Wadhwa and this book. Or go for Ashfaq Hussain or any book you had in your graduation.
  5. Power System Protection: Chapters of Protective relays and circuit breakers (from Wadhwa) cover large part of the syllabus in much better way. For microprocessor based relays refer to TMH book.
  6. Digital Communication: For PCM, DPCM, DM refer to chapter 6 of Lathi. ASK, PSK and FSK are covered much better in Haykin. Information theory and codes can be covered from either of them. Chapter 1 and 2 of Forouzan are to be covered for data networks and 7 layered architecture.

Electrical Engineering(Mains) Booklist

Paper I

  1. Circuit Theory:A. Chakrabarti(Dhanpat Rai).
  2. Signals and systems:Oppenheim and Willsky. For DFT/FFT, refer toOppenheim’s book on DSP. For better coverage of z-transform, refer any Indian author.(I had Sanjay Sharma’s book)
  3. E.M. Theory:K.D. Prasad. For Smith chart and other minor topics left refer Jordan & Balmain.
  4. Analog Electronics:J.B. Gupta. For topics like feedback amplifiers and any other topics not covered well in that book refer Sedra & Smith.Or Millman Halkias, Gaekwad, Streetman.
  5. Digital Electronics:M.Morris Mano, RP Jain
  6. Energy Conversion:Ashfaq Hussain. For topics not covered in detail referFitzgerald.
  7. Power Electronics and Electric Drives:PS Bhimbra
  8. Analog Communication:(a)Simon Haykin (b) BP Lathi (c) Singh and Sapre(TMH)

Paper II

  1. Control Systems:Nagrath & Gopal
  2. Microprocessors and Microcomputers:RS Gaonkar
  3. Measurement and Instrumentation:AK Sawhney
  4. Power Systems:(a)Nagrath and Kothari (b) CL Wadhwa or (c)Ashfaq Hussain
  5. Power System Protection:(a)CL Wadhwa(only chapters of  psp, circuit breaker)  (b) Badriram &Vishwakarma
  6. Digital Communication:Same as Analog Communication. For Data Networks and 7-layered architecture I referredForouzan(TMH).

Strategy for Kannada Literature Optional

By Balaji DK, AIR 36 (311/500) in Kannda Literature)

ಪ್ರಿಯ ಸ್ನೇಹಿತರೆ,

ಕನ್ನಡ ಸಾಹಿತ್ಯ ಐಚ್ಚಿಕ  ವಿಷಯ ಕುರಿತ ಲೇಖನಕ್ಕೆ ತಾವೆಲ್ಲರೂ ಕಾತರದಿಂದ ಕಾಯುತ್ತಿದ್ದೀರಿ. ತಡ ಮಾಡಿದ್ದಕ್ಕೆ ವಿಷಾದಿಸುತ್ತೇನೆ.

ಮೊದಲಿಗೆ ಕನ್ನಡ ಸಾಹಿತ್ಯವನ್ನು ಆಯ್ಕೆಮಾಡಿಕೊಂಡಿದ್ದಕ್ಕೆ ಅಭಿನಂದನೆಗಳು. ನಿಮ್ಮ ನಿರ್ಧಾರ ಸರಿಯಾಗಿದೆ. ಕನ್ನಡ ಸಾಹಿತ್ಯದಲ್ಲಿ ನಿಬ್ಬೆರಗಾಗಿಸುವ ಅಂಕಗಳನ್ನು ತೆಗೆದುಕೊಳ್ಳಲು ವಿಪುಲ ಅವಕಾಶಗಳಿವೆ.

ನನಗೆ ಕನ್ನಡದ ಮೇಲೆ ಅಪಾರ ಒಲವು ಮೂಡಿಸಿ, ಕನ್ನಡ ಭಾಷೆಯ ಮೇಲೆ ಹಿಡಿತ ಸಾಧಿಸಲು ಕಾರಣೀ ಭೂತರಾದ ನನ್ನ ಪ್ರೌಡಶಾಲೆ ಕನ್ನಡ ಗುರುಗಳಾದ ಶ್ರೀ ಡಿ.ಎಸ್. ತಿಮ್ಮಯ್ಯ ನವರಿಗೆ ನನ್ನ ಕನ್ನಡ ಸಾಹಿತ್ಯದ ಯಶಸನ್ನು ಸಮರ್ಪಿಸುತ್ತೇನೆ. ಕನ್ನಡದಲ್ಲಿ ನನಗೆ ಬಂದಿರುವ ೩೧೧/೫೦೦ ಅಂಕಗಳನ್ನು ಆ ಮಹಾನುಭಾವ ಅಂದು ಕನ್ನಡ ಪಾಠ ಕಲಿಸುವುದರ ಮೂಲಕ ನನಗೆ ನೀಡಿದ ವರ ಎಂಬುದೇ ನನ್ನ ಭಾವನೆ. (ಪ್ರೌಡಶಾಲೆ ಯಲ್ಲಿ ಕಲಿತ ಸಂಧಿ, ಸಮಾಸ, ಛಂದಸ್ಸು, ಅಲಂಕಾರ, ಇತ್ಯಾದಿಗಳನ್ನು ನಾನು ಪರೋಕ್ಷವಾಗಿ ಉತ್ತರದಲ್ಲಿ ಸೇರಿಸಿ ಉತ್ತರವನ್ನು ವಿಮರ್ಶಾತ್ಮಕಕವಾಗಿಸಿದ್ದೆ.)

ಮೊದಲಿಗೆ ನನ್ನ ಕನ್ನಡ ಸಾಹಿತ್ಯ ಗುರುಗಳಾದ ಶ್ರೀ ವೆಂಕಟೇಶಪ್ಪ (ಜೈಸ್ ಸಂಸ್ಥೆ ವಿಜಯನಗರ ಬೆಂಗಳೂರು) ಅವರಿಗೆ ಕೃತಜ್ಞತೆ ಸಲ್ಲಿಸುತ್ತೇನೆ. ವೆಂಕಟೇಶಪ್ಪ ಸರ್ ಅವರು ಸುಧೀರ್ಘವಾಗಿ ಹಲವು ವಿಷಯಗಳನ್ನು ಚರ್ಚಿಸಿದ್ದು ಮತ್ತು ಅವರು ನೀಡಿದ ಮಾದರಿ ಉತ್ತರಗಳು ಅನುಕೂಲವಾದವು.

ಅಂತೆಯೆ ಶ್ರೀ ಜಿನೆಂದ್ರ ಖನಗವಿ (ಅಪರ ಪೋಲಿಸ್ ವರಿಷ್ಠಾಧಿಕಾರಿ, ವಿಜಯಪುರ) ಅವರಿಗೆ ವಿಶೇಷವಾಗಿ ಆಭಾರಿಯಾಗಿದ್ದಿನಿ. ತಮ್ಮ ಬಿಡುವಿರದ ಕೆಲಸದ ನಡುವೆಯೂ ನನಗೆ ದೂರವಾಣಿ ಮತ್ತು whaatsapp ಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಅಧ್ಬುತ ಮಾರ್ಗದರ್ಶನ ನೀಡಿದರು. ನನ್ನ ಅಂಕಗಳು ಶೇ. ೨೫ ರಷ್ಟು ಹೆಚ್ಚಾಗಲು ಅವರ ಮಾರ್ಗದರ್ಶನ ಭಾರಿ ಸಹಾಯಕವಾಯಿತು. ನಾನು ಅಂಚೆ ಮೂಲಕ ಕಳುಹಿಸಿದ ಉತ್ತರಗಳನ್ನು ಪರಿಶೀಲಿಸಿ ಉತ್ತರ ಗುಣಮಟ್ಟ ಸುಧಾರಿಸುವಲ್ಲಿ ಪ್ರಮುಖ ಪಾತ್ರ ವಹಿಸಿದರು.

ಹೊಸದಾಗಿ ಕನ್ನಡ ಸಾಹಿತ್ಯ ಸಿದ್ಧತೆ ಆರಂಭಿಸುವ ಅಭ್ಯರ್ಥಿಗಳಿಗೆ ಕಿವಿಮಾತು – ಕೋಚಿಂಗ್ ಇಲ್ಲದೆ ಕನ್ನಡ ಸಾಹಿತ್ಯ ಅಧ್ಯಯನ ಕಷ್ಟಸಾಧ್ಯ ಎಂಬುದು ನನ್ನ ಸ್ವಂತ ಅಭಿಪ್ರಾಯ. ಇದಕ್ಕೆ ಕಾರಣ ಕನ್ನಡ ಸಾಹಿತ್ಯಕ್ಕೆ ಸಂಬಂದಿಸುವ ಎಲ್ಲ ಪುಸ್ತಕಗಳು ಒಂದೆಡೆ ಸಿಗುವುದಿಲ್ಲ. ಹಲವು ಪುಸ್ತಕಗಳ ಮುದ್ರಣ ನಿಂತೇ ಹೋಗಿದೆ. ಆದರೆ ಕನ್ನಡ ಸಾಹಿತ್ಯ ಬೋಧಿಸುವವರ ಎಲ್ಲ ಅಗತ್ಯ ಪುಸ್ತಕಗಳನ್ನು ಕಲೆ ಹಾಕಿರುತ್ತಾರೆ. ನಂತರ ಕೋಚಿಂಗ್ ಹೋದಾಗ ನಿಮಗೆ ಮಾದರಿ ಉತ್ತರಗಳು, ಯಶಸ್ವಿ ವಿಧ್ಯಾರ್ಥಿಗಳ ಉತ್ತರಗಳು ಲಭ್ಯವಾಗುತ್ತವೆ. ಅದು ಬಹಳ ಸಹಾಯಕವಾಗುತ್ತದೆ. (ಆ ಉತ್ತರಗಳನ್ನು ಉರು ಹಚ್ಚಬಾರದು. ಆ ಉತ್ತರಗಳನ್ನು ಗಮನದಲ್ಲಿಟ್ಟುಕೊಂಡು ನಿಮ್ಮ ಸ್ವಂತಿಕೆ ಬಳಿಸಿ ‘ನಿಮ್ಮ’ ಉತ್ತರ ತಯಾರಿಸುವ ಚಾಕಚಕ್ಯತೆ ಬೆಳೆಸಿಕೊಂಡರೆ ನಿಬ್ಬೆರಗಗಿಸುವ ಅಂಕಗಳು ನಿಮ್ಮ ಕಿಸೆಗೆ ತಾವಾಗಿಯೇ ಬಂದು ಬೀಳುತ್ತವೆ).


ಕನ್ನಡ ಸಾಹಿತ್ಯ ಅಭ್ಯರ್ಥಿಗಳು ಮಾಡುವ ಸಾಮಾನ್ಯ ತಪ್ಪುಗಳು (ನನ್ನ ಪ್ರಕಾರ) ಕೆಳಕಂಡಂತಿವೆ;

ಕನ್ನಡ ಸಾಹಿತ್ಯಕ್ಕೆ ಹೆಚ್ಚಿನ ಪರಿಶ್ರಮ ಬೇಡ. ಅದನ್ನು ಕೇವಲ ಎರಡು ತಿಂಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಓದಿಮುಗಿಸಬಹುದು ಎನ್ನುವ ತಪ್ಪು ಕಲ್ಪನೆ. (ಇತರೆ ಐಚ್ಚಿಕ  ವಿಷಯದ ವಿಧ್ಯಾರ್ಥಿಗಳು ೭-೮ ತಿಂಗಳುಗಳು ಓದಲೇಬೇಕಿರುವಾಗ ಮತ್ತು ಅಷ್ಟು ಓದಿದರೂ ಸಹ ಅವರ ಪರಿಶ್ರಮಕ್ಕೆ ಪ್ರತಿಫಲ ಸಿಗುವುದು ಅನಿಶ್ಚಿತವಾಗಿರುವಾಗ ಕನ್ನಡ ಕಂದಮ್ಮಗಳಾದ ನೀವು ‘ನಾನು ಕನ್ನಡ ವಿಷಯವನ್ನು ಕೇವಲ ೨ ತಿಂಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಮುಗಿಸುತ್ತೇನೆ, ಅದಕ್ಕಿಂತ ಹೆಚ್ಚಿಗೆ ಓದಲು ಸಾಧ್ಯವಿಲ್ಲ’ ಎಂದುಕೊಳ್ಳೋದು ಹಾಸ್ಯಾಸ್ಪದ. ದಯವಿಟ್ಟು ಕನಿಷ್ಠ ೪ ತಿಂಗಳು ಕನ್ನಡಕ್ಕಾಗಿ ಮೀಸಲಿಡಿ ಹಾಗು ಇದರಲ್ಲಿ ಮೈನವಿರೇಳಿಸುವ ಅಂಕಗಳನ್ನು ಪಡೆದು ಒಳ್ಳೆಯ ರಾಂಕ್ಕ್ ಪಡೆಯಿರಿ.)

ಕನ್ನಡ ಸಾಹಿತ್ಯ ಪಠ್ಯ ವಿಷಯ (ಸಿಲಬುಸ)ನ್ನು ಸಂಪೂರ್ಣ ಓದದೆ ಕೇವಲ ಮುಖ್ಯ ಪಾಠಗಳನ್ನು ಮಾತ್ರ ಓದುವುದು. ಸಿಲಬುಸ್ ಪೂರ್ಣ ಓದಲು ಸಾಧ್ಯವಾಗದಿದ್ದರೆ ಕನಿಷ್ಟಪಕ್ಷ ಶೇ. ೯೦ ಸಿಲಬುಸ್ ಆದರು ಓದಿ. ಇಲ್ಲದಿದ್ದರೆ ನಿಮಗೆ ಎಲ್ಲರೂ ಪಡೆಯುವಂತೆ ಸರಾಸರಿ ಅಂಕಗಳು ಮಾತ್ರ ಲಭಿಸುತ್ತವೆ.

ಮೂಲ ಪುಸ್ತಕಗಳನ್ನು ಓದದೆ ನೋಟ್ಸ್ ಗಳನ್ನ ಓದುವುದು (ಉದಾಹರಣೆಗೆ, ‘ಬೆಟ್ಟದ ಜೀವ’ ಕಾದಂಬರಿಯನ್ನೇ ಓದದೆ ಅದರ ವಿಮರ್ಶೆಯನ್ನು ಅಥವಾ ನೋಟ್ಸ್ ನ್ನು ಓದಿ ಉತ್ತರಿಸುವುದು). ಅಥವಾ ಹಿಂದಿನ ಯಶಸ್ವೀ ವಿಧ್ಯಾರ್ಥಿಗಳ ಉತ್ತರಗಳನ್ನು ಓದುವುದು ಅಥವ ಪಾಠದ ಧ್ವನಿ ಮುದ್ರಿಕೆ (ಆಡಿಯೋ) ಗಳನ್ನು ಕೇಳಿ ಸುಮ್ಮನಾಗುವುದು. ಈ ತಪ್ಪನ್ನು ತುಂಬಾ ವಿಧ್ಯಾರ್ಥಿಗಳು ಮಾಡಿದ್ದಾರೆ. ದಯವಿಟ್ಟು ಮೊದಲು ಮೂಲ ಪುಸ್ತಕ ನಂತರ ವಿಮರ್ಶೆ, ನೋಟ್ಸ್, ಯಶಸ್ವೀ ವಿಧ್ಯಾರ್ಥಿಗಳ ಉತ್ತರ ಇತ್ಯಾದಿ.

ಪ್ರಶ್ನೆ-ಉತ್ತರದ ರೂಪದಲ್ಲಿ ತಯಾರಿ ನಡೆಸುವುದು ಹೆಚ್ಚಿನ ಅಂಕಗಳಿಗೆ ದಾರಿಮಾಡಿ ಕೊಡುವುದಿಲ್ಲ. ಈಗಿನ ಪ್ರಶ್ನೆ-ಪತ್ರಿಕೆಯ ಸ್ವರೂಪವನ್ನು ಗಮನಿಸಿದರೆ ವಿಷಯದ ಮೇಲೆ ಹಿಡಿತ ಅವಶ್ಯಕ ಎಂದು ವೇದ್ಯವಾಗುತ್ತದೆ. ಹಾಗಿರುವಾಗ ಪ್ರತಿ ಪಾಠದ ಮೇಲೆ ೩-೪ ಪ್ರಶ್ನೆಗಳಿಗೆ ಚೆಂದದ ಉತ್ತರ ಸಿದ್ಧ ಮಾಡಿ ಉಳಿದ ಪ್ರಶ್ನೆಗಳಿಗೆ ಆ ಉತ್ತರದಿಂದಲೇ ಉತ್ತರ ಅರಸುವ ಮತ್ತು ಆರಿಸುವ ವಿಧಾನ ತಮಗೆ ನಿಬ್ಬೆರಗಾಗಿಸುವ ಅಂಕಗಳನ್ನು ದಯಪಾಲಿಸುವುದಿಲ್ಲ. ಉತ್ತರವನ್ನು ಮನೆಗೆ ಉಪಮಾನವಾಗಿ ಪರಿಗಣಿಸಿ ಹೇಳುವುದಾದರೆ ಉತ್ತರ ಪತ್ರಿಕೆಯ ಮೇಲೆ ಮನೆ ಕಟ್ಟಲು ಅವಶ್ಯಕವಾದ ಇಟ್ಟಿಗೆಗಳನ್ನು ತಯಾರಿಸಿಕೊಂಡು ಹೋಗಿ ಅವರು ಕೇಳಿದಂತೆ ಮನೆ ಕಟ್ಟಬೇಕೇ ವಿನಃ ಮನೆಯನ್ನು ಮೊದಲೇ ಕಟ್ಟಿ ಅಲ್ಲಿ ಪ್ರತಿಷ್ಟಾಪಿಸುವುದು; ಅಥವಾ ಆ ಮನೆಯನ್ನು ಪರೀಕ್ಷಾ ಕೋಣೆಯಲ್ಲಿ ಕೆಡವಿ ಇಟ್ಟಿಗೆಗಳನ್ನು ಆಯ್ದು ಕಟ್ಟುವುದು ತಕ್ಕುದಲ್ಲ.

ಕನ್ನಡವನ್ನು ವೇಗವಾಗಿ ಬರೆಯಲು ಪ್ರಯತ್ನಿಸದಿರುವುದು.

ಉತ್ತರದಲ್ಲಿ ಕೇವಲ ಕಥೆಯನ್ನೇ ತುಂಬಿ ವಿಮರ್ಶೆಯನ್ನು ಕಡೆಗಣಿಸುವುದು. ವಿಮರ್ಶಾತ್ಮಕ ಉತ್ತರಗಳಿಗೆ ಮಾತ್ರ ಗರಿಷ್ಟ ಅಂಕ ಲಭಿಸುತ್ತದೆ. (ವಿಮರ್ಶಾತ್ಮಕವಾಗಿ ಹೇಗೆ ಉತ್ತರಿಸಬೇಕು ಎಂಬುದನ್ನು ಮುಂದೆ ನೋಡೋಣ).

ಪತ್ರಿಕೆ ೧

೧. ಭಾಷಾಶಾಸ್ತ್ರ

ಈ ಪಾಠದಿಂದ ನೇರ ಪ್ರಶ್ನೆಗಳು ಬರುವುದರಿಂದ ಪುಸ್ತಕ ವನ್ನು ಚೆನ್ನಾಗಿ ಓದಿ ಮನನ ಮಾಡಿ. ಪ್ರತಿ ಉತ್ತರದಲ್ಲೂ ಹೇರಳವಾಗಿ ಉದಾಹರಣೆಗಳನ್ನೂ ನೀಡಬೇಕು. ಪ್ರತಿ ವಿಷಯದ ಮೇಲೂ ಒಂದು ಅಥವಾ ಎರಡು ಉದಹರಣೆ ಮಾತ್ರ ಖಚಿತವಾಗಿ ನೆನಪಿರಲಿ. ಅದಕ್ಕಿಂತ ಹೆಚ್ಚು ನೆನಪಿದ್ದರು ಪರೀಕ್ಷೆಯಲ್ಲಿ ಸೇರಿಸಲು ಸಾಧ್ಯವಿಲ್ಲ. (ನಿದರ್ಶನ – ಧ್ವನಿ ವ್ಯತ್ಯಾಸದಲ್ಲಿ ಮಿತವ್ಯಯಾಸಕ್ತಿ ಗೆ ಎರಡು, ಅವಧಾರಣೆ ಗೆ ಎರಡು ಹೀಗೆ ಪ್ರತಿಯೊಂದಕ್ಕೂ ಉದಹರಣೆ ತಿಳಿದಿರಬೇಕು)

ಭಾಷಾಶಾಸ್ತ್ರಕ್ಕೆ ‘ಕನ್ನಡ ಭಾಷ ಚರಿತ್ರೆ’ (ಲೇ: ಎಂ.ಎಚ್. ಕೃಷ್ಣಯ್ಯ) ಮತ್ತು ಸಾ.ಶಿ. ಮರುಳಯ್ಯ ವಿರಚಿತ ಭಾಷಾಶಾಸ್ತ್ರ ಪುಸ್ತಕಗಳು ಸಹಕಾರಿ. ಅಂತೆಯೇ, ವೆಂಕಟೇಶಪ್ಪ ಸರ್ ಅವರ ತರಗತಿ ಟಿಪ್ಪಣಿಗಳು ಬಹಳ ಸಹಾಯಕವಾದವು.

ಭಾಶಶಸ್ತ್ರದ ಪರಿಕಲ್ಪನೆಗಳನ್ನು ಪತ್ರಿಕೆ ೨ ರಲ್ಲಿ ಭಾವಾರ್ಥ ಬರೆಯುವಾಗ ಕೂಡ ಬಳಸಿಕೊಳ್ಳಬಹುದು. ಉದಾಹರಣೆಗೆ, ನೀಡಿರುವ ಪದ್ಯಭಾಗದಲ್ಲಿನ ಹಳಗನ್ನಡ ಪದಗಳನ್ನು ಗಮಿನಿಸಿ, ಆ ಪದಗಳಿಗೆ ಹೊಸಗನ್ನಡ ಸಮಾನಂತರ ಪದಗಳನ್ನು ಬರೆದು, “ಈ ಪಧ್ಯಭಾಗದಿಂದ ಕನ್ನಡ ಭಾಷೆಯ ಅವಸ್ಥಾ೦ತರದ ವಿವಿಧ ಹಂತಗಳನ್ನು ಗುರುತಿಸಿ ನದಿಯ ನೀರು ದಿಕ್ಕು ಬದಲಿಸುವಂತೆ, ಕನ್ನಡ ಭಾಷೆ ಹೇಗೆ ದಿಕ್ಕು ಬದಲಿಸಿದೆ ತಿಳಿಯಬಹುದು” ಎಂದೆಲ್ಲ ವಿಮರ್ಶೆ ಬರೆಯಬಹುದು.

ಅಂತೆಯೇ, ಪದ್ಯಭಾಗದಲ್ಲಿ ಇತರೆ ಭಾಷೆಗಳಿಂದ ಬಂದ ಪದಗಳಿದ್ದರೆ ಗಮನಿಸಿ ಅದನ್ನು ಸಹ ಭಾವಾರ್ಥದಲ್ಲಿ ಸೇರಿಸಬಹುದು.

ಹೊಸಗನ್ನಡ ಕಥೆ, ಕವನ, ನಾಟಕ, ಕಾದಂಬರಿ, ಇತ್ಯಾದಿಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಮಂಗಳೂರು, ಮೈಸೂರು, ಧಾರವಾಡ, ಗುಲ್ಬರ್ಗ ಕನ್ನಡಗಳ ,ಪದಗಳು ಭಾಷ ಸೊಗಡನ್ನು ಗುರುತಿಸಬೇಕು. ತತ್ಸಂಬಂಧ ಕಥೆ, ಕವನ, ನಾಟಕ, ಕಾದಂಬರಿ, ಇತ್ಯಾದಿಗಳ ಮೇಲಿನ ಪ್ರಶ್ನೆಗಳಿಗೆ ಉತ್ತರಿಸುವಾಗ ಅವನ್ನು ಸಮೊಯೋಚಿತವಾಗಿ ಉತ್ತರದಲ್ಲಿ ಸೇರಿಸಿ. (ನಿದರ್ಶನ – ಬೇಂದ್ರೆ ಅವರ ಕವನಗಳಲ್ಲಿನ ಧಾರವಾಡ ಕನ್ನಡ ಸೊಗಡು).

ಇಂಗ್ಲಿಷ್ ಭಾಷೆಯ ಪದಗಳ ಬಳಕೆಯನ್ನು ಗಮನಿಸಿ ಭಾಷೆ-ಭಾಷೆಗಳ ನಡುವಣ ಕೊಡು-ಕೊಳ್ಳು ಸಂಬಂಧ ಎಂತೆಲ್ಲ ಬರೆಯಬಹುದು. ನಿದರ್ಶನ – “ಕ್ಲಿಪ್ ಜಾಯಿಂಟ್ ಕಥೆಯಲ್ಲಿ ಶ್ರೀ ಅನಂತ ಮೂರ್ತಿ ಅವರು ಬಳಸುವ ಆಂಗ್ಲ ಪದಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಭಾವನೆಗೆ ಭಾಷೆ ದಾಸನಾಗಬೇಕೆಂಬ ನಿಲುವು ನಿಚ್ಚಳವಾಗಿ ಕಂಡುಬರುತ್ತದೆ” ಎಂದು ಬರೆಯಬಹುದು.

೨. ಕನ್ನಡ ಸಾಹಿತ್ಯದ ಇತಿಹಾಸ

ಈ ಉಪವಿಭಾಗಕ್ಕೆ “ಶ್ರೀ ಸಾಮಾನ್ಯನಿಗೆ ಸಾಹಿತ್ಯ ಚರಿತ್ರೆ” ಪುಸ್ತಕ ಮಾಲಿಕೆಯ ೧೦ ಪುಸ್ತಕಗಳಲ್ಲಿನ ಆಯ್ದಭಾಗಗಳು ಅತ್ಯುಪಯುಕ್ತ. (ಎಚ್ಚರವಿರಲಿ – ಪೂರ್ತಿ ಅಲ್ಲ, ಸಿಲಬಸ್ ಗೆ ಸಂಬಂಧಪಟ್ಟ ಆಯ್ದ ಭಾಗಗಳು ಮಾತ್ರ. ಸಪ್ನ ಪುಸ್ತಕ ಮಳಿಗೆಯಲ್ಲಿ ಇವು ಲಭ್ಯ. ಅಷ್ಟೇ ಅಲ್ಲದೆ ಮೈಸೂರು ಬ್ಯಾಂಕ್ ವೃತ್ತ ದಲ್ಲಿ ಬೆಂಗಳೂರು ವಿಶ್ವವಿದ್ಯಾಲಯದ ‘ಪ್ರಸಾರಾಂಗ’ ಪುಸ್ತಕ ಮಾರಾಟ ಕೇಂದ್ರದಲ್ಲಿ ರಿಯಾಯಿತಿ ದರದಲ್ಲಿ ಲಭ್ಯ.

ಪ್ರತಿಯೊಬ್ಬ ಕವಿಯ ಬಗ್ಗೆಯೂ, ಆತನ ಕಾಲದ ಬಗ್ಗೆಯೂ, ಆತನ ಶೈಲಿಯ ಬಗ್ಗೆಯೂ ತಿಳಿದು ತುಲನಾತ್ಮಕ ವಿಮರ್ಶೆಗೆ ಬಳಸಬಹುದು. ಪ್ರತಿಯೊಬ್ಬ ಕವಿಯ ಬಗ್ಗೆ ಇತರ ವಿಮರ್ಶಕರ ಹೇಳಿಕೆಗಳು (ಉದಾಹರಣೆಗೆ, ಪಂಪನ ಬಗ್ಗೆ ತೀ. ನಂ. ಶ್ರೀ. ಅವರ ಹೇಳಿಕೆ ; ರತ್ನಾಕರವರ್ಣಿ ಕುರಿತ ಕುವೆಂಪು ಅವರ ಹೇಳಿಕೆ ಇತ್ಯಾದಿ) ತಮಗೆ ತಿಳಿದಿರಬೇಕು. ಅಂತೆಯೆ ಪ್ರತಿಯೊಬ್ಬ ಕವಿಯ ಇಂದಿನ ಪ್ರಸ್ತುತತೆ ಯನ್ನು ಉತ್ತರದಲ್ಲಿ ಸೇರಿಸಿ. ತಮ್ಮ ‘ಸಾಮಾನ್ಯ ಅಧ್ಯಯನ’ (ಜನರಲ್ ಸ್ಟಡೀಸ್) ನಿಂದ ತಿಳಿದುಕೊಂಡಿರುವ ವಿಚಾರಗಳ ಹಿನ್ನಲೆಯಲ್ಲಿ ಕವಿಯ ಪ್ರಸ್ತುತತೆಯನ್ನು ವಿಶ್ಲೆಸಿಬಹುದು. ಉದಾಹರಣೆಗೆ, ಇತ್ತೀಚೆಗೆ ಪ್ರಕಟಗೊಂಡ ವರದಿಯೊಂದರ ಪ್ರಕಾರ ಕೆಲ ಜಾತಿಗಳ ಕುಟುಂಬಗಳಿಗೆ ನಗರಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಮನೆ ಬಾಡಿಗೆ ಕೊಡದಿರುವುದು ಬೆಳಕಿಗೆ ಬಂದಿದೆ. ಇದರ ಹಿನ್ನಲೆಯಲ್ಲಿ ಬಸವಣ್ಣನವರ ವಚನಗಳ ಪ್ರಸ್ತುತತೆಯನ್ನು ಅವಲೋಕಿಸಬಹುದು.

೩. ಹೊಸಗನ್ನಡ ಸಾಹಿತ್ಯ ಚರಿತ್ರೆ

ಪ್ರಸ್ತುತ ಉಪವಿಭಾಗಕ್ಕೆ ಶ್ರೀ ಎಲ್.ಎಸ್. ಶೇಷಗಿರಿ ರಾವ್ ವಿರಚಿತ “ಹೊಸಗನ್ನಡ ಸಾಹಿತ್ಯ ಚರಿತ್ರೆ” ಪುಸ್ತಕ ಅತ್ಯಂತ ಮಹತ್ವದ್ದು. ಅದರ ಜೊತೆಯಲ್ಲಿಯೇ ಮೈಸೂರು ವಿಶ್ವವಿದ್ಯಾಲಯದ ಎಂಎ (ಕನ್ನಡ) ಪುಸ್ತಕಗಳು ಅತ್ಯಂತ ಅನುಕೂಲ.

ಪ್ರತಿ ಸಾಹಿತ್ಯ ಚಳುವಳಿಯ ಗುಣಲಕ್ಷಣಗಳನ್ನು ಚೆನ್ನಾಗಿ ತಿಳಿದು ಅದಕ್ಕೆ ತಕ್ಕ ಉದಾಹರಣೆಗಳನ್ನು ಕಂಡುಕೊಳ್ಳಿ. ಶೇಷಗಿರಿ ರಾವ್ ಪುಸ್ತಕದಲ್ಲಿನ ಉದಾಹರಣೆಗಳನ್ನು ಮಾತ್ರವಲ್ಲದೆ ಪತ್ರಿಕೆ ೨ ರಲ್ಲಿನ ವಿಷಯಗಳಲ್ಲಿನ ಉದಾಹರಣೆಗಳನ್ನು ನೀಡಬೇಕು. ನಿದರ್ಶನ – ನವೋದಯದ ‘ಜೀವನ ಪ್ರೀತಿ’ ಮೌಲ್ಯಕ್ಕೆ ಉದಾಹರಣೆಯಾಗಿ ‘ಹೊಸಗನ್ನಡ ಕವಿತೆಯಲ್ಲಿನ’ ಮಾಸ್ತಿ ಅವರ ‘ಬಾಳು ಜಾರುಬಂಡೆಯಾಟ’ ಕವಿತೆ ಯನ್ನು ನೀಡಬಹುದು. ಆ ಪದ್ಯದ ಕಡೆಯ ಸಾಲು – ‘ಚಣ ಮುಗಿದು ಬುಡ ಸೇರುವೆವು, ಮತ್ತೆ ತುದಿಗೆರುವೆವು’ ಲ್ಲಿ ಜೀವನ ಪ್ರೀತಿ ಘನೀಕರಿಸಿದೆ. ಅಂತೆಯೇ ಮಾಸ್ತಿ ಅವರ ‘ಮೊಸರಿನ ಮಂಗಮ್ಮ’ ಕಥೆಯಲ್ಲಿ ಮಂಗಮ್ಮ ಹೊಸ ರವಿಕೆ ಹೊಲೆಸಿಕೊಲ್ಲುವುದ್ರಲ್ಲೂ “ಏಜ್ ಇಸ್ ಜಸ್ಟ್ ಅ ನಂಬರ್’ ಎಂಬ ಆಂಗ್ಲ ಉಕ್ತಿಯನ್ನು ನೆನಪಿಸುವುದರ ಜೊತೆ ಜೊತೆಗೆ ಜೀವನ ಪ್ರೀತಿಯ ದ್ಯೋತಕವೂ ಆಗಿದೆ.

ಪ್ರಗತಿಶೀಲ ಚಳುವಳಿಯ ಕುರಿತು ಬರೆಯುವಾಗ ‘ಕೊನೆಯ ಗಿರಾಕಿ’ ಕಥೆಯನ್ನು ಉದಾಹರಿಸಬಹುದು.

ಹೀಗೆ ಪತ್ರಿಕೆ ೨ ರಲ್ಲಿನ ಉದಾಹರಣೆಗಳನ್ನು ಶೇಷಗಿರಿ ರಾವ್ ವಿರಚಿತ “ಹೊಸಗನ್ನಡ ಸಾಹಿತ್ಯ ಚರಿತ್ರೆ” ಪುಸ್ತಕದಲ್ಲಿನ ಉದಾಹರಣೆಗಳನ್ನು ನೀಡಿ ಉತ್ತರದ ಗುಣಮಟ್ಟವನ್ನು ಹೆಚ್ಚಿಸಿ.

ಅಂತೆಯೇ ಪತ್ರಿಕೆ ೨ ರಲ್ಲಿ ಉತ್ತರ ಬರೆಯುವಾಗ ಈ ಸಾಹಿತ್ಯ ಚಳುವಳಿಗಳ ಸಾಹಿತ್ಯ ಲಕ್ಷಣಗಳು ಹೇಗೆ ಸಾಕಾರಗೊಂಡಿವೆ ಎಂದು ಬರೆಯುವುದು ಒಳ್ಳೆಯದು.

೪. ಕಾವ್ಯ ಮೀಮಾಂಸೆ

ಕಾವ್ಯ ಮೀಮಾಂಸೆ ಗೆ ವೆಂಕಟೇಶಪ್ಪ ಸರ್, ಜಿನೆಂದ್ರ ಸರ್ ನೋಟ್ಸ್,  ಮೈಸೂರು ವಿಶ್ವವಿದ್ಯಾಲಯದ ಎಂಎ (ಕನ್ನಡ) ಪುಸ್ತಕಗಳು – ಇವನ್ನು ಪ್ರಮುಖವಾಗಿ ಓದಿದ್ದೆ. ಜೊತೆಯಲ್ಲಿ ಸ್ವಲ್ಪ ಮಟ್ಟಿಗೆ ತಿಪ್ಪೇರುದ್ರಸ್ವಾಮಿ ವಿರಚಿತ “ತೌಲನಿಕ ಕಾವ್ಯ ಮೀಮಾಂಸೆ’ ಹೊತ್ತಿಗೆಯನ್ನು ಓದಿದ್ದೆ. ಜೊತೆ ಜೊತೆಗೆ ಮೀಮಾಂಸೆಯ ಪರಿಕಲ್ಪನೆಗಳನ್ನು ವಿಮರ್ಶೆಯ ಪರಿಕಲ್ಪನೆಗಳೊಂದಿಗೆ ಹೋಲಿಸಬೇಕು. ಉದಾಹರಣೆಗೆ ಅರಿಸ್ಟಾಟಲ್ ನ ‘ಕಾಥರ್ಸಿಸ್’ ಪರಿಕಲ್ಪನೆಯನ್ನು ‘ಶಾಂತ ರಸ’ ದ ಜೊತೆ ಹೋಲಿಸುವುದು. (ಸಿ.ಎನ್. ರಾಮಚಂದ್ರನ್ ವಿರಚಿತ ಸಾಹಿತ್ಯ ವಿಮರ್ಶೆ ಪುಸ್ತಕದ ೨ನೆ ಅಧ್ಯಾಯದಲ್ಲಿ ಕೆಲವು ವಿಮರ್ಶೆ ಪರಿಕಲ್ಪನೆಗಳಿವೆ. ಅವನ್ನು ಕಾವ್ಯ ಮೀಮಾಂಸೆಯ ಪರಿಕಲ್ಪನೆಗಳೊಂದಿಗೆ ಹೋಲಿಕೆ ಮಾಡಿದ ಟಿಪ್ಪಣಿಗಳನ್ನು ನೀಡಲಾಗಿದೆ).

ಅಂತೆಯೇ, ರಾಷ್ಟ್ರ ಕವಿ ಶ್ರೀ ಶಿವರುದ್ರಪ್ಪ ವಿರಚಿತ ‘ಕಾವ್ಯಾರ್ಥ ಚಿಂತನ’ ಪುಸ್ತಕ ಕೂಡ ಅವಶ್ಯಕ. (ರೀತಿ ಪರಿಕಲ್ಪನೆಗೆ ಈ ಪುಸ್ತಕದ ಲೇಖನ ಅತ್ಯುಪಯುಕ್ತ. ಹಾಗೆಯೆ ‘ಪ್ರತಿಭೆ’, ‘ಸ್ಪೂರ್ತಿ’, ‘ಮಾನಸಿಕ ದೂರ ‘ ಇತ್ಯಾದಿ ಪರಿಕಲ್ಪನೆಗಳ ಬಗ್ಗೆಓದಿ. ಇದು ಸಿಲಬಸ್ ಅಲ್ಲಿ ಇಲ್ಲ. ಆದರೂ ಪ್ರಶ್ನೆ ಬರಬಹುದು. ಅಷ್ಟೇ ಅಲ್ಲ, ಆ ಪರಿಕಲ್ಪನೆಗಳನ್ನು ಪತ್ರಿಕೆ ೨ ರಲ್ಲಿ ಹೇರಳವಾಗಿ ವಿಮರ್ಶೆಗೆ ಬಳಸಬಹುದು. ನಿದರ್ಶನ – ಕೆಲವೊಂದು ಉತ್ತರದಲ್ಲಿ ಹೆಚ್ಚಿನ ವಿಮರ್ಶೆಗೆ ಅವಕಾಶ ಇಲ್ಲದಿರುವಾಗ ‘ಪ್ರಸ್ತುತ ಕಾವ್ಯ ಭಾಗವನ್ನು ಕವಿಯು ಸ್ಪೂರ್ತಿಯ ತೆಕ್ಕೆಗೆ ಸಿಲುಕಿದಾಗ ರಚಿಸಿರುವುದರಿಂದ ಸಹೃದಯನಲ್ಲಿ ಧನಾತ್ಮಕ ಭಾವನೆ ಮೂಡಿಸುತ್ತದೆ.’ ಹೀಗೆಲ್ಲ ಬರೆಯಬಹುದು.

ಕಾವ್ಯ ಮೀಮಾಂಸೆ ಯ ಪ್ರಶ್ನೆಗಳಿಗೆ ಉತ್ತರಿಸುವಾಗ ಸಂಸ್ಕೃತ ವಾಕ್ಯಗಳನ್ನು ಉಲ್ಲೆಕಿಸುವ ಪ್ರಯತ್ನ ಮಾಡಿ. ಪ್ರತಿ ಕಾವ್ಯ ಮೀಮಾಂಸೆಯ ಪರಿಕಲ್ಪನೆಗೆ ಹಳೆಗನ್ನಡ, ಹೊಸಗನ್ನಡ, ಜನಪದದ ಉದಾಹರಣೆ ನೀಡಿದರೆ ಒಳ್ಳೆಯದು. ಇದು ನಿಮ್ಮ ಉತ್ತರವನ್ನು ವಿಭಿನ್ನಗೊಳಿಸುತ್ತದೆ. ನಿದರ್ಶನ – ‘ರೀತಿ’ ಗೆ ನಿದರ್ಶನವಾಗಿ ಹಳೆಗನ್ನಡದಲ್ಲಿ ‘ಅಳಗಂ ಮಂದಾರ ಶೂನ್ಯಂ……’ ಎಂಬ ಆದಿಪುರಾಣದ ಕಾವ್ಯಭಾಗವನ್ನು, ಹೊಸಗನ್ನಡದಲ್ಲಿ ರಾಜರತ್ನಂ ಅವರ ಕುಡುಕನ ಭಾಷೆಯ ಶೈಲಿ, ಸಿದ್ದಲಿಂಗಯ್ಯ ಅವರ ‘ಇಕ್ರಲಾ ಓದಿರ್ಲಾ….’ ಸಾಲಿಂಥ ಹಳ್ಳಿಯ ಭಾಷೆಯನ್ನೂ ಮತ್ತು ಜನಪದದ ‘ರತ್ತೋ ರತ್ತ್ಹೋ ರಾಯನ ಮಗಳೇ…..’ ಸಾಲನ್ನು ಉದಾಹರಿಸಬಹುದು. ಶ್ರೀ ಗಿರಡ್ಡಿ ಗೋವಿಂದರಾಜು ಅವರ ‘ವಚನ ವಿನ್ಯಾಸ’ ಪುಸ್ತಕದಲ್ಲಿ ಪಾಶ್ಚಾತ್ಯ ಶೈಲಿಶಾಸ್ತ್ರದ ಹಲವು ಪರಿಕಲ್ಪನೆಗಳ ಚರ್ಚೆ ಇದೆ. ಅದನ್ನು ಓದಿ ರೀತಿಯೊಂದಿಗೆ ಹೋಲಿಸಿ ಬರೆಯಬಹುದು. ಈ ಪುಸ್ತಕ ಪತ್ರಿಕೆ ೨ ಲ್ಲಿನ ವಚನಗಳ ವಿಮರ್ಶೆಗೂ ಸಹ ಉಪಯುಕ್ತ.

ಕಡೆಯದಾಗಿ ಎಲ್ಲೆಲ್ಲಿ ಕಾವ್ಯ ಮೀಮಾಂಸೆಯ ಯುದೆ ಪ್ರಸ್ಥಾನಗಳು ಹೊಂದಿಕೆಯಾಗದಿರುವಾಗ ‘ಔಚಿತ್ಯ’ ಪರಿಕಲ್ಪನೆಯನ್ನು ಬಳಸಬಹುದು.

೫. ಸಾಹಿತ್ಯ ವಿಮರ್ಶೆ

ಇದೊಂದು ನಿಗೂಢ ಉಪವಿಭಾಗ ಎನ್ನಬಹುದು. ಕಾರಣ ಇಲ್ಲಿಂದ ಬರುವ ಹಲವು ಪ್ರಶ್ನೆಗಳಿಗೆ ಉತ್ತರ ಎಲ್ಲಿ ಸಿಗುತ್ತದೋ ಎಷ್ಟೋ ಬಾರಿ ತಿಳಿಯುವುದೇ ಇಲ್ಲ.

ಡಾ. ಸಿ.ಎನ್. ರಾಮಚಂದ್ರನ್ ವಿರಚಿತ ‘ಸಾಹಿತ್ಯ ವಿಮರ್ಶೆ’ ಪುಸ್ತಕ ವನ್ನು ಓದಿ. ಪ್ರತಿಯೊಬ್ಬ ವಿಮರ್ಶಕನ ಕೊಡುಗೆಯ ಕುರಿತು ೨ ಪುಟದಷ್ಟು ಟಿಪ್ಪಣಿ ತಯಾರು ಮಾಡಿಕೊಳ್ಳಿ. ವಿಮರ್ಶಕರ ಹೆಸರುಗಳು ಚೆನ್ನಾಗಿ ನೆನಪಿರಲಿ. ಅವನ್ನು ಪತ್ರಿಕೆ ಯೆಅರ್ದರಲ್ಲಿ ಬಳಸಬಹುದು. ಉದಾಹರಣೆಗೆ, ಅಕ್ಕಮಹಾದೇವಿಯ ಕುರಿತು ಬರೆಯುವಾಗ ಸಿಮೊನ್ ದ ಬೊವ ವಿಚಾರ ಲಹರಿಯನ್ನು ಹೋಲಿಕೆಗೆ ಬಳಸಬಹುದು.

ಇಲ್ಲಿ ಸ್ವಲ್ಪ ಉರು ಹೊಡೆಯುವುದು ಅನಿವಾರ್ಯ. ಆದರೆ ಅರ್ಥ ಮಾಡಿಕೊಂಡು ಉರು ಹೊಡೆಯಿರಿ. ಹಾ ಹಾ… ಹಾ…

೬. ಸಾಂಸ್ಕೃತಿಕ ಇತಿಹಾಸ

ಇಲ್ಲಿ ನೇರ ಪ್ರಶ್ನೆಗಳು ಬರುವುದರಿಂದ, ನಾನು ಹೆಚ್ಚಾಗಿ ಎನನ್ನು ಹೇಳಲಾರೆ. ಫಾಲಾಕ್ಷ ಅವರ ‘ಕರ್ನಾಟಕ ಇತಿಹಾಸ’ ಪುಸ್ತಕದ ಆಯ್ದ ಭಾಗಗಳನ್ನು ಓದಬಹುದು. ಈಗೀಗ ಸ್ವಲ್ಪ ಆಳಕ್ಕೆ ಇಳಿದು ಪ್ರಶ್ನೆ ಕೇಳುತ್ತಿರುವುದರಿಂದ ತಿಪ್ಪೇರುದ್ರಸ್ವಾಮಿ ವಿರಚಿತ ‘ಕರ್ನಾಟಕ ಸಾಂಸ್ಕೃತಿಕ ಸಮೀಕ್ಷೆ’ ಪುಸ್ತಕ ಅನುಕೂಲವಾಗಬಹುದು.

ಪತ್ರಿಕೆ ೨

ಪತ್ರಿಕೆ ೨ ರಲ್ಲಿ ಹೆಚ್ಚಿನ ಅಂಕ ಗಳಿಸಬೇಕಾದರೆ,

ಪತ್ರಿಕೆ ೧ ರಲ್ಲಿನ ಶಾಸ್ತ್ರಿಯ (ಭಾಷಾ ಶಾಸ್ತ್ರ, ಮೀಮಾಂಸೆ, ವಿಮರ್ಶೆ ಪರಿಕಲ್ಪನೆ) ಪರಿಕಲ್ಪನೆಗಳನ್ನು ಹೇರಳವಾಗಿ ಬಳಕೆ ಮಾಡಬೇಕು.

ಅಂತೆಯೆ ಉತ್ತರದಲ್ಲಿ ಸುಮ್ಮನೆ ಕಥೆ ಬರೆಯದೆ ಉತ್ತರದ ಶೇ ೫೦ ವಿಮರ್ಶೆಗೆ ಮೀಸಲಿರಬೇಕು.

ಎಷ್ಟು ಸಾಧ್ಯವೋ ಅಷ್ಟು ಹಳೆಗನ್ನಡ, ವಚನ, ಕೀರ್ತನೆ ಸಾಲು ಗಳನ್ನೂ ಉಲ್ಲೇಕಿಸಬೇಕು. ಪ್ರತಿ ಉತ್ತರದಲ್ಲೂ ‘ಪ್ರಸ್ತುತತೆ’ ಯನ್ನು ಬರೆಯಬೇಕು.

ಉತ್ತರದಲ್ಲಿ ನಿಮ್ಮ ಸ್ವಂತ ಅಭಿಪ್ರಾಯ ಅನಿಸಿಕೆಗಳನ್ನು ನೀಡಬೇಕು.

೧. ಪಂಪಭಾರತ

ಪಂಪಭಾರತದ ಹಳೆಗನ್ನಡ-ಹೊಸಗನ್ನಡ ಪುಸ್ತಕವೊಂದಿದೆ. ಅದರ ಪ್ರಸ್ತಾವನೆ ಅತ್ಯಂತ ಉಪಯುಕ್ತ. ನಂತರದಲ್ಲಿ ಇಡಿ ಪಂಪಭಾರಥವನ್ನು ಘಟನೆಗಳಾಗಿ ವಿಭಾಗಿಸಿ – – ದ್ರೋಣನ ಸಾವು, ಅಶ್ವತ್ಹಾಮ-ಕರ್ಣರ ಜಟಾಪಟಿ, ಕರ್ಣ-ಭೀಷ್ಮರ ಭೇಟಿ ಇತ್ಯಾದಿ – – ಪ್ರತಿ ಘಟನೆಯನ್ನು ನಿಮ್ಮದೇ ಆದ ವಾಕ್ಯಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ವಿಮರ್ಶಾತ್ಮಕವಾಗಿ, ಅಲ್ಲಲ್ಲಿ ಹಳಗನ್ನಡ ವಾಕ್ಯಗಳನ್ನು ಉಲ್ಲೇಖಿಸಿ ಬರೆಯುವ ಕೌಶಲ್ಯ ಬೆಳೆಸಿಕೊಳ್ಳಿ.

ಪಂಪಭಾರತವನ್ನು ಕುಮಾರವ್ಯಾಸ ಭಾರತ ದೊಂದಿಗೆ ಹೋಲಿಕೆ ಮಾಡಬೇಕು.

೨. ಕುಮಾರವ್ಯಾಸ ಭಾರತ

ಕುವೆಂಪು ಅವರು ಕುಮಾರವ್ಯಾಸ ಭಾರತ ಸಂಗ್ರಹಕ್ಕೆ ಬರೆದಿರುವ ‘ತೋರಣನಾಂದಿ’ ಮತ್ತು ಮೈಸೂರು ವಿಶ್ವವಿದ್ಯಾಲಯದ ಎಂಎ (ಕನ್ನಡ) ಪುಸ್ತಕ ಅನುಕೂಲವಾಗುತ್ತದೆ.

ಇಲ್ಲಿಯೂ ಕೂಡ ಘಟನೆಗಳನ್ನು ವಿಭಾಗಿಸಿ ಅಲ್ಲಿಯ ವಾಕ್ಯಗಳನ್ನು ಉತ್ತರದಲ್ಲಿ ಸೇರಿಸಿ ಕುಮಾರವ್ಯಾಸನ ಗ್ರಾಮ್ಯ ಶೈಲಿ,ರೂಪಕ ಬಳಕೆ ಇತ್ಯಾದಿಗಳನ್ನು ಅವನದೇ ವಾಕ್ಯಗಳನ್ನು ಅಲ್ಲಲ್ಲಿ ಬಳಿಸಿ ಉತ್ತರಿಸಿ. ಪೂರ್ತಿ ಸಾಲನ್ನು ಬರೆಯುವುದು ಸಾಧ್ಯವಿಲ್ಲ. ಆದ್ದರಿಂದ, ಕೆಲವೇ ಕೆಲವು ಹಳಗನ್ನಡ ಪದಗಳನ್ನು ಬಳಸಬಹುದು. ನಿದರ್ಶನ – ಕರ್ಣ ಹೇಳುತ್ತಾನೆ , ‘ಪಾರ್ಥನೆಮ್ಬುವನಾವ ಮಾನಿಸನು ….. ಬಲುಹು ಸಾರಥಿಯಿಂದ.. ರಿಪುಗಳ ಗೆಲುವು ಸಾರಥಿಯಿಂದ….” .; “ಅವನಿಪತಿಗಳ ಸೇವೆಯಿದು ಕಷ್ಟವಲೆ” ಇತ್ಯಾದಿ ಸಣ್ಣ ಸಣ್ಣ ಪದಪುಂಜ ಬಳಸಿ ನಿಮಗೆ ಪಠ್ಯ ತಿಲಿತಿಲಿದಿದೆ ಎಂದು ತೋರಿಸಿಕೊಳ್ಳಿ.

೩. ವಡ್ಡಾರಾಧನೆ

ಜೈನ ತತ್ವಗಳಾದ ಪಂಚಾಣವ್ರತ, ಆಸ್ರವ, ನಿರ್ಜರ, ಇತ್ಯಾದಿ ಪರಿಕಲ್ಪನೆಗಳನ್ನು ಉತ್ತರದಲ್ಲಿ ಬಳಸಿ.

ವಡ್ಡಾರಾಧನೆ ಕಥೆಗಳಿಗೆ ನಕಾಶೆ (chart) ಹಾಕಿ ಎಲ್ಲ ಉಪಕಥೆಗಳ ಸರಣಿ ಮತ್ತು ಪಾತ್ರಗಳನ್ನು ನೆನಪಿನಲ್ಲಿಟ್ಟುಕೊಳ್ಳಿ.

ವಡ್ಡಾರಾಧನೆ ಕಥೆಗಳನ್ನು ಹೊಸಗನ್ನಡ ಕಥೆಗಳು ಮತ್ತು ಜನಪದದ ಕಥೆಗಳೊಂದಿಗೆ ಹೋಲಿಸಿ.

೪. ವಚನಗಳು

ಶ್ರೀ ಸಾಮಾನ್ಯನಿಗೆ ಸಾಹಿತ್ಯ ಚರಿತ್ರೆ ಮಾಲಿಕೆಯ ಚಿದಾನಂದ ಮೂರ್ತಿ ವಿರಚಿತ ‘ವಚನ ಸಾಹಿತ್ಯ’ ಕೃತಿ ಅನುಕೂಲವಾಯಿತು. ಗಿರಡ್ಡಿ ಗೋವಿಂದರಾಜು ಅವರ ‘ವಚನ ವಿನ್ಯಾಸ’ ಕೃತಿ ವಚನ ವಿಶ್ಲೇಷಣೆಗೆ ಹೊಸ ದಿಕ್ಕನ್ನೇ ತೋರಿಸಿತು. (ಅಷ್ಟೇ ಅಲ್ಲ ಈ ಕೃತಿ ಶೈಲಿಶಾಸ್ತ್ರದ ಹಲವು ಪರಿಕಲ್ಪನೆಗಳಾದ ‘ಪುನರಾವರ್ತನೆ’, ‘ಸಮಾoತರತೆ’, ‘ರಚನಸಾಮ್ಯ’ ಇತ್ಯಾದಿ ಪರಿಕಲ್ಪನೆಗಳು ಕೀರ್ತನೆ, ಹಳೆಗನ್ನಡ ಕಾವ್ಯ, ಹೊಸಗನ್ನಡ ಕಾವ್ಯಗಳ ವಿಶ್ಲೆಶನೆಗು ಸಹಾಯಕವಾಯಿತು.

ಕೇವಲ ಬಸವಣ್ಣ, ಅಕ್ಕಮಹಾದೇವಿ, ಜೇಡರ ದಸಿಮಯ್ಯ, ಅಲ್ಲಮ ಪ್ರಭು ವಚನಗಳ ಜೊತೆ ಜೊತೆಗೆ ಅಷ್ಟೊಂದು ಪ್ರಸಿದ್ಧಿಇರದ ವಚನಕಾರರ ವಚನಗಳ ಸಾಲುಗಳನ್ನು ನೆನಪಿನಲ್ಲಿಡಿ. ವಿಶೇಷವಾಗಿ ವಚನಕರ್ಥಿಯರ ವಚನಗಳ ಕುರಿತು ನಿಮಗೆ ತಿಳಿದಿರಬೇಕು. ನಾನು ಸರಿ ಸುಮಾರು ೧೦೦ ವಚನಗಳ ಸಾಲುಗಳನ್ನು ತಿಳಿದಿದ್ದೆ. ವಚನದ ಮೇಲಿನ ಉತ್ತರದಲ್ಲಿ ಕಡ್ಡಾಯವಾಗಿ ಪ್ರಸಿದ್ಧರಲ್ಲದವರ ವಚನಗಳ ಜೊತೆಗೆ ಇತರೆ ವಚನಕಾರರ ವಚನಗಳ ಸಾಲುಗಳನ್ನು ಮತ್ತು ವಚನಕಾರ್ಥಿಯರ ವಚನ ಸಾಲುಗಳನ್ನು ಉಲ್ಲೇಖಿಸುತ್ತಿದ್ದೆ.

ವಚನಗಳನ್ನು ಕೀರ್ತನೆಗಳೊಂದಿಗೆ ಹೋಲಿಸುತ್ತಿದ್ದೆ. ಮತ್ತು ಕೀರ್ತನೆಗಳನ್ನು ವಚನಗಳೊಂದಿಗೆ ಹೋಲಿಸುತ್ತಿದ್ದೆ.

೫. ಕೀರ್ತನೆಗಳು

ಶ್ರೀ ಸಾಮಾನ್ಯನಿಗೆ ಸಾಹಿತ್ಯ ಚರಿತ್ರೆ ಮಾಲಿಕೆಯ ಚಿದಾನಂದ ಮೂರ್ತಿ ವಿರಚಿತ ‘ಕೀರ್ತನೆಕಾರರು’ ಕೃತಿ ಅನುಕೂಲವಾಯಿತು ಕೀರ್ತನೆಗಳ ಸಾಲುಗಳನ್ನು ನೆನಪಿನ್ನಲ್ಲಿಡಿ. ಅಂತೆಯೆ ಕೀರ್ತನೆಗಳನ್ನು ವಚನಗಳೊಂದಿಗೆ ಹೋಲಿಸಿ. ಮೇಲೆ ಹೇಳಿದ ಶೈಲಿಶಾಸ್ತ್ರದ ಪರಿಕಲ್ಪನೆಗಳನ್ನು ಇಲ್ಲಿಯೂ ಉಪಯೋಗಿಸಬಹುದು.

೬. ಭರತೇಶ ವೈಭವ

ಭರತೇಶ ವೈಭವಕ್ಕೆ ಕುವೆಂಪು ಅವರು ಬರೆದಿರುವ ಸುಮಾರು ೬೦ ಪುಟಗಳ ಪ್ರಸ್ತಾವನೆ ಮತ್ತು ಮೈಸೂರು ವಿಶ್ವವಿದ್ಯಾಲಯದ ಎಂಎ (ಕನ್ನಡ) ಪುಸ್ತಕ ಅನುಕೂಲ.

ಅಂತೆಯೇ ಶಿವರುದ್ರಪ್ಪ ಅವರ ‘ಯೋಗ-ಭೋಗ ತೊಡಕು’ ವಿಮರ್ಶಾ ಲೇಖನ ಮತ್ತು

ಅದಕ್ಕೆ ವಿರುದ್ದವಾಗಿ ಜಯಚಂದ್ರ ಅವರು ಬರೆದಿರುವ ‘ರತ್ನಾಕರನಲ್ಲಿ ಯೋಗ-ಬೋಗದ ತ್ಹೊದಕಿದೆಯೇ?’ ವಿಮರ್ಶೆ ಅನುಕೂಲವಾಗುತ್ತವೆ.

ಚಂದ್ರಶೇಕರ ಕಂಬಾರರ ದೇಶಿಯ ಚಿಂತನೆ ಪುಸ್ತಕದಲ್ಲಿನ ಲೇಖನ,

ಡಾ. ಕುಮುದಾ ವಿರಚಿತ ‘ಚಿಂತನ’ ಪುಸ್ತಕದಿಂದ ಆಯ್ದ “ಭರತೇಶ ವೈಭವದ ಭರತ-ಬಾಹುಬಲಿ ಪ್ರಸಂಗ” ಲೇಖನ;

ಡಾ. ಡಿ. ಲಿಂಗಯ್ಯ ವಿರಚಿತ ‘ಕಾವ್ಯಪರುಷ’ ಸಂಕಲನದ ‘ರತ್ನಾಕರನ ಶೈಲಿ’ ಲೇಖನ.

ಮೇಲಿನ ಪುಸ್ತಕಗಳು ಬೆಂಗಳೂರು ವಿಜಯನಗರದ ಆರ್.ಪಿ.ಸಿ. ಬಡಾವಣೆಯ ಗ್ರಂಥಾಲಯದಲ್ಲಿ ಲಭ್ಯವಿವೆ.

(ವಿರಾಮ – ನನ್ನ ಒಂದು ನೆನಪನ್ನು ನಿಮ್ಮೊಂದಿಗೆ ಹಂಚಿಕೊಳ್ಳಲು ಮನಸ್ಸಾಗುತ್ತಿದೆ. ಪ್ರಥಮ ಪ್ರಯತ್ನದಲ್ಲಿ ಸಂದರ್ಶನಕ್ಕೆ ಕರೆ ಬಾರದಿದ್ದಾಗ ಕನ್ನಡ ಸಾಹಿತ್ಯದಲ್ಲೇ ಕಡಿಮೆ ಅಂಕ ಬಂದಿರಬಹುದೆಂದು ಭಾವಿಸಿ ಕನ್ನಡ ಸಾಹಿತ್ಯದಲ್ಲಿ ಮುಂದಿನ ಬಾರಿ ಅತಿ ಹೆಚ್ಚು ಅಂಕಗಳನ್ನು ಪಡೆಯಲೇಬೇಕೆಂಬ ಧೃಡಚಿತ್ತದಿಂದ ಮೇಲೆ ಹೇಳಿದ ಗ್ರಂಥಳಯದಲ್ಲಿನ ‘ಎಲ್ಲ’ ವಿಮರ್ಶೆ ಪುಸ್ತಕಗಳ ಪರಿವಿಡಿಯನ್ನು ಅವಲೋಕಿಸಿ, ಸಿಲಬುಸ್ ಗೆ ಸಂಬಂದಿಸಿದ ಲೇಖನಗಳಿವೆಯೇ ಎಂದು ಪರಿಶೀಲಿಸಿ, ಅಂತಹ ಲೇಖನ ಇದ್ದಲ್ಲಿ ಅದರ ಸಾರಾಂಶವನ್ನು ಟಿಪ್ಪಣಿ ಮಾಡಿಕೊಳ್ಳುತ್ತಿದ್ದೆ. ನಂತರ ಅಂಕಗಳು ಬಿಡುಗಡೆಯಾದ ಮೇಲೆ ನನ್ನ ಎಣಿಕೆ ತಪ್ಪಾಗಿತ್ತು. ಕನ್ನಡದಲ್ಲಿ ನಾನು ಸರಾಸರಿಗಿಂತ ಹೆಚ್ಚಿನ ಅಂಕ ಪಡೆದಿದ್ದೆ. ಒಂದು ರೀತಿಯಲ್ಲಿ ನಾನು ಕಡಿಮೆ ಅಂಕ ಪಡೆದಿರಬಹುದು ಎಂಬ ತಪ್ಪು ಎಣಿಕೆ ನನಗೆ ವರವಾಯ್ತು. ನನ್ನ ಪರಿಶ್ರಮಕ್ಕೆ ಕೊನೆಗೂ ಪ್ರತಿಫಲ ದಕ್ಕಿದೆ. ಮೆಹನತ್ಕಾಫಲ್ ಹಮೇಶ ಮೀಠಹಿಹೋತಾ ಹೈ ಎನ್ನುವ ಹಿಂದಿಯ ಉಕ್ತಿ ಖಂಡಿತಾ ಸತ್ಯ.)

ಉರಿಲಿಂಗದೇವ, ಗಜೇಶ ಮಸಣಯ್ಯರ ವಚನಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಕಾಮದ ಸಂಕೇತಗಳನ್ನೇ ಬಳಸಿಕೊಂಡು ಭಕ್ತಿಯನ್ನು ವ್ಯಕ್ತಪಡಿಸುತ್ತಾರೆ. ಆ ವಚನಗಳನ್ನು ‘ಯೋಗ-ಭೋಗ ಸಮನ್ವಯ’ಕ್ಕೆ ಹೋಲಿಸಬಹುದು. ನಂಬಿಯಣ್ಣನ ರಗಳೆಯನ್ನು ಸಹ ಇದಕ್ಕೆ ಹೋಲಿಕೆ ಮಾಡಬಹುದು.

೭. ನಂಬಿಯಣ್ಣನ ರಗಳೆ

ಮೈಸೂರು ವಿಶ್ವವಿದ್ಯಾಲಯದ ಎಂಎ (ಕನ್ನಡ) ಪುಸ್ತಕ ಅನುಕೂಲ.

ವಸಿಷ್ಠ ಅವರ ನಂಬಿಯಣ್ಣನ ರಗಳೆಯ ಹೊಸಗನ್ನಡ ರೂಪ ಕಥೆಯ ಸ್ವರೂಪವನ್ನು ತಿಳಿಸುವುದು ಮಾತ್ರವಲ್ಲದೆ ನಿಮಗೆ ಅತ್ಯವಶ್ಯಕವಾದ ರಗಳೆಯಲ್ಲಿನ ಸಾಲುಗಳನ್ನು ಹೆಕ್ಕಿ ತೆಗೆಯಲು ಸಹಕಾರಿ.

ಡಾ. ಎಸ್.ವಿದ್ಯಾಶಂಕರ ಅವರ “ನಂಬಿಯಣ್ಣ: ಒಂದು ಅಧ್ಯಯನ” ಪುಸ್ತಕ ಸಹಾಯವಾಯಿತು (ಈ ಪುಸ್ತಕವು ಸಹ ಮೇಲೆ ಹೇಳಿದ ಗ್ರಂಥಾಲಯದಲ್ಲೇ  ಸಿಕ್ಕಿದ್ದು.) – ಈ ಪುಸ್ತಕದಲ್ಲಿ ನಂಬಿಯಣ್ಣನರಗಳೆಗೆ ನೀಡಬಹುದಾದ ಹೋಲಿಕೆಗಳು ಲಭ್ಯವಾದವು. ಅಷ್ಟೇ ಅಲ್ಲದೆ ಮೂಲ ಕೃತಿಯಿಂದ ಹರಿಹರ ಮಾಡಿಕೊಂಡಿರುವ ಮಾರ್ಪಾಡುಗಳ ಮಾಹಿತಿ ಲಭ್ಯವಾಯಿತು.

ಈ ರಗಳೆಯನ್ನು ಭರತೇಶ ವೈಭವದೊಡನೆ ಹೋಲಿಸಬಹುದು.

೮. ಹೊಸಗನ್ನಡ ಕವಿತೆ

ಎಲ್ಲಾಕವಿತೆಗಳನ್ನು ಓದಿ ಅರ್ಥೈಸಿಕೊಳ್ಳುವುದು ಕಷ್ಟಸಾದ್ಯ. ಹಾಗಾಗಿ ತುಂಬಾ ಪ್ರಮುಖ ಕವಿಗಳ ಕವಿತೆಗಳ ಸಾರಾಂಶ ಬರೆದು ತಯಾರಾಗಿ. ಅಕ್ಕ ಐಎಎಸ್ ಅವರ ನೋಟ್ಸ್ ಅಲ್ಲಿ ಹಲವು ಕವಿತೆಗಳ ಸಾರಾಂಶ ಲಭ್ಯವಿದೆ. ಯಾರಾದರು ಕನ್ನಡ ಭೋದಕರು ಅಥವಾ ಸ್ನಾತಕ ವಿಧ್ಯಾರ್ಥಿಗಳ ಸಹಾಯ ಪಡೆದು ಅತಿ ಮುಖ್ಯ ಕವಿತೆಗಳ ಸಾರಾಂಶ ಮತ್ತು ಆ ಕವಿತೆಯಲ್ಲಿ ಸಾಕಾರಗೊಂಡಿರುವ ಚಳುವಳಿಯ ಲಕ್ಷಣಗಳನ್ನು ಟಿಪ್ಪಣಿ ರೂಪದಲ್ಲಿ ಮಾಡಿಟ್ಟುಕೊಳ್ಳಿ.

೯. ಬೆಟ್ಟದ ಜೀವ

ಹೆಚ್ಚಾಗಿ  ಹೇಳುವುದು ಏನು ಇಲ್ಲ. ಆದರೆ ಶೇಷಗಿರಿರಾಯರ ‘ಹೊಸಗನ್ನಡ ಸಾಹಿತ್ಯ ಚರಿತ್ರೆ’ ಕೃತಿಯಲ್ಲಿನ ಕಾರಂತರ ಕಾದಂಬರಿ ಕುರಿತ ವಿಚಾರವನ್ನು ವಿಮರ್ಶೆಗೆ ಬಳಸಿ. ವೆಂಕಟೇಶಪ್ಪ ಸರ್ ಕೊಟ್ಟ ಟಿಪ್ಪಣಿಗಳು ಬಲು ಉಪಯುಕ್ತ. ದಯವಿಟ್ಟು ಕಾದಂಬರಿಯನ್ನು ಓದಿ, ಅದರ ಭಾಷೆ, ಶೈಲಿ ಇತ್ಯಾದಿಗಳ ಬಗ್ಗೆ ಟಿಪ್ಪಣಿ ಮಾಡಿಕೊಳ್ಳಿ.

೧೦. ಮಾಧವಿ

ಪಾತ್ರಗಳ ನಾಮಧೆಯಗಳನ್ನು ನೆನಪಿನಲ್ಲಿಡಿ. ವೆಂಕಟೇಶಪ್ಪ ಸರ್ ಟಿಪ್ಪಣಿಗಳು ಉಪಯುಕ್ತ. ಈ ಕಾದಂಬರಿಯನ್ನು ಸ್ತ್ರೀ ಕೇಂದ್ರಿತ ವಚನ, ಸ್ತ್ರೀವಾದಿ ವಿಮರ್ಶಕರಾದ ಸಿಮೊನ್ ದ ಬೊವ ಮತ್ತು ಇತರರ ವಿಚಾರಧಾರೆಗಳನ್ನೂ ಹೋಲಿಕೆಗೆ ಬಳಸಿ. ಪ್ರಸ್ತುತತೆಯನ್ನು ಬರೆಯುವಾಗ ಸ್ತ್ರೀ ಮೇಲೆ ಇಂದಿಗೂ ಜರಗುತ್ತಿರುವ ಅತ್ಯಾಚಾರ, ಶೋಷಣೆಯ ಬೆಳಕಿನಲ್ಲಿ ‘ದೆಹಲಿಯ ಸಾಮೂಹಿಕ ಅತ್ಯಾಚಾರವನ್ನು ಸಹ ಉದ್ಧರಿಸಬಹುದು.

೧೧. ಒಡಲಾಳ

ಶ್ರೀ ಎಚ್. ಕೆ. ವೆಂಕಟೇಶ್ ವಿರಚಿತ “ನೋವು ನಲಿವಿನ ಹಾಡು” ಪುಸ್ತಿಕೆಯಿಂದ ಆಯ್ದ “ಯಾರ ಜಪ್ತಿಗೂ ಸಿಗದ ನವುಲುಗಳು” ಲೇಖನ ಉಪಯುಕ್ತ. (ಮೇಲೆ ಹೇಳಿದ ಗ್ರಂಥಾಲಯದಲ್ಲಿ ಲಭ್ಯ)

ವಚನಗಳನ್ನು, ದಲಿತ ಸಾಹಿತ್ಯದ ಕವನಗಳನ್ನು, ಶೂದ್ರ ತಪಸ್ವಿಯನ್ನು, ಮಾರ್ಕ್ಸವಾದಿ ವಿಮರ್ಶಕರ ಅಭಿಪ್ರಾಯಗಳು ಉತ್ತರದ ಗುಣಮಟ್ಟ ಹೆಚ್ಚಿಸಲು ಸಹಕಾರಿ.

೧೨. ತುಘಲಕ್

ಮೈಸೂರು ವಿಶ್ವವಿದ್ಯಾಲಯದ ಎಂಎ (ಕನ್ನಡ) ಪುಸ್ತಕ ಅನುಕೂಲ.

ಶ್ರೀ ಕೃಷ್ಣಮೂರ್ತಿ ಚೆಂದುರ್ ಸಂಪಾದಿಸಿರುವ “ಗಿರೀಶ್ ಕಾರ್ನಾಡರ ನಾಟಕಗಳು” ವಿಮರ್ಶಾ ಸಂಕಲನದಲ್ಲಿ ಈ ನಾಟಕಕ್ಕೆ ಸಂಬಂದಿಸಿದ ಪರೀಕ್ಷೆಯಲ್ಲಿ ಉತ್ತರಿಸಲು ಸಹಕಾರಿಯಾದ ವಿಮರ್ಶೆಗಳು ಲಭ್ಯವಿವೆ.

ಹಲವು ವಿಮರ್ಶೆಗಳು ತುಘಲಕ್ ನ್ನು ನೆಹರು ಗೆ ಹೋಲಿಸಲಾಗಿದೆ. ದಯವಿಟ್ಟು ಉತ್ತರದಲ್ಲಿ ಅದನ್ನು ಬರೆಯಬೇಡಿ. ವಾಸ್ತವತೆಯ ಗಂಧವಿಲ್ಲದ ಮಹತ್ವಾಕಾಂಕ್ಷೆಯ ನಾಯಕರುಗಳ ಲೇವಡಿ ಅಥವಾ ಟೀಕೆ ಎಂದಷ್ಟೆ ನಮೂದಿಸಿ. ಸಾಧ್ಯವಾದಲ್ಲಿ ತುಘಲಕ್ ಪಾತ್ರವನ್ನು ಮನೋವೈಜ್ಞಾನಿಕ ದೃಷ್ಟಿಯಿಂದಲೂ ವಿವೇಚಿಸಿ (ಆಪ್ತ ಮಿತ್ರ ನಾಗವಲ್ಲಿ ಯನ್ನು ನೆನಪಿಸಿಕೊಳ್ಳಿ… ಹಾ ಹಾ ಹಾ…)

೧೩. ಶೂದ್ರ ತಪಸ್ವಿ

ವೆಂಕಟೇಶಪ್ಪ ಸರ್ ನೀಡಿದ ಟಿಪ್ಪಣಿಗಳು ಅದ್ಭುತ. ಸಾಧ್ಯವಾದಷ್ಟು ಕುವೆಂಪು ಬಳಸಿರುವ ನಡುಗನ್ನಡದ ಸಂಬಾಷಣೆಯನ್ನು ಉತ್ತರದಲ್ಲಿ ಬಳಸಿ. ದಲಿತ ಸಾಹಿತ್ಯ, ವಚನ ಸಾಹಿತ್ಯ, ಮಾರ್ಕ್ಸ್ವಾದಿ ವಿಮರ್ಶೆಯನ್ನ ಹೋಲಿಕೆಗೆ ಬಳಸಿ.

೧೪. ದೇವರು

ಪುಸ್ತಕವನ್ನು ಓದಿ ಮೂರ್ತಿರಾಯರ ವಿಚಾರಧಾರೆಯನ್ನು ಅರಿತುಕೊಳ್ಳಿ. ಪುಸ್ತಕದಲ್ಲಿ ಅವರು ನೀಡಿರುವ ಉದಾಹರಣೆಗಳನ್ನು ಒಂದೆಡೆ ಪಟ್ಟಿ ಮಾಡಿ. ನಂತರ ಪ್ರಶ್ನೆಯನ್ನು ನಿಮ್ಮದೇ ವಾಕ್ಯದಲ್ಲಿ ಸ್ವಂತವಾಗಿ ಉತ್ತರಿಸಿ.

೧೫. ಕನ್ನಡ ಸಣ್ಣ ಕಥೆಗಳು

ಎಲ್ಲ ಕಥೆಗಳನ್ನು ಓದಿ ನೀವೇ ಒಂದು ಸ್ವಂತ ನೋಟ್ಸ್ ಮಾಡುವುದು ಒಳ್ಳೆಯದು. ಪ್ರತಿ ಕಥೆಯನ್ನು ಕೆಳಗಿನ ಅಂಶಗಳ ಹಿನ್ನಲೆಯಲ್ಲಿ ವಿಶ್ಲೇಷಿಸಿ.

ಕಥೆಯ ಸಾರಾಂಶ

ಸಾಕಾರಗೊಂಡಿರುವ ಚಳುವಳಿಯ ಲಕ್ಷಣಗಳು

ಭಾಷೆಯ ಸ್ವರೂಪ


ಕಾವ್ಯ ಮೀಮಾಂಸೆ ಅಂಶಗಳು

ಜನಪದ ಕಥೆಗಳೊಂದಿಗೆ ಹೋಲಿಕೆ

ವಡ್ಡಾರಾಧನೆ ಕಥೆಗಳೊಂದಿಗೆ ಹೋಲಿಕೆ



ಒಬ್ಬರಿಗೆ ಎಲ್ಲಾ ಕಥೆಗಳ ಮೇಲೆ ನೋಟ್ಸ್ ಮಾಡಲು ಸಾಧ್ಯವಾಗದಿದ್ದರೆ, ಇತರೆ ಆಕಾಂಕ್ಷಿಗಳೋಡನೆ ಸೇರಿ ಪ್ರತಿಯೊಬ್ಬರು ಕೆಲವು ಕಥೆಗಳ ನೋಟ್ಸ್ ಮಾಡಿ ಹಂಚಿಕೊಳ್ಳಿ.

೧೫. ಜಾನಪದ ಸಾಹಿತ್ಯ

ಶ್ರೀ ಜಿನೇಂದ್ರ ಸರ್ ಅವರು ನೀಡಿದ ನೋಟ್ಸ್ ಬಹಳ ಅನುಕೂಲವಾಯಿತು. ಸಿಲಬಸ್ ನಲ್ಲಿರುವ ಪುಸ್ತಕ ದಲ್ಲಿನ ಪ್ರಸ್ತಾವನೆಯನ್ನು ಓದಿ ಟಿಪ್ಪಣಿ ಮಾಡಿಕೊಳ್ಳುವುದು ಒಳ್ಳೆಯದು. ಉದಾಹರಣೆಗೆ ನೀಡಲು ವಿವಿಧ ರೀತಿಯ ಗೀತೆಗಳು, ಗಾದೆಗಳು, ಒಗಟುಗಳು, ಕಥೆಗಳನ್ನು ಓದಿ ತಿಳಿದುಕೊಳ್ಳುವುದು ಒಳ್ಳೆಯದು.ಜನಪದವನ್ನು ಕಡೆಗಣಿಸಬೇಡಿ.

ವಿಮರ್ಶಾತ್ಮಕ ಉತ್ತರ


ಕಾವ್ಯ ಮೀಮಾಂಸೆಯ ಅಂಶಗಳನ್ನು ಗುರುತಿಸುವುದು

ವಿಮರ್ಶೆಯ ಪರಿಕಲ್ಪನೆಗಳನ್ನು ಗುರುತಿಸುವುದು

ನಿಮ್ಮ ಅಭಿಪ್ರಾಯ – ಅನಿಸಿಕೆ ನಮೂದಿಸಬೇಕು

ಪ್ರಸ್ತುತೆಯನ್ನು ಬರೆಯಬೇಕು (GS ವಿಷಯಗಳನ್ನು ಲಿಂಕ್ ಮಾಡಿ)

ಕನ್ನಡ ಸಾಹಿತ್ಯದ ಬಗ್ಗೆ ಎಷ್ಟು ಸಾಧ್ಯವೋ ಅಷ್ಟು ವಿಷಯಗಳನ್ನು ಹಂಚಿಕೊಂಡಿದ್ದೇನೆ. ಎಲ್ಲವನ್ನು ಹೇಳಲು ಸಾದ್ಯವಿಲ್ಲ ಅನಿಸುತ್ತಿದೆ. ಕಾಮೆಂಟ್ ಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ನಿಮ್ಮ ಸಂದೇಹವನ್ನು ಪರಿಹರಿಸುವೆ.

ಕರ್ನಾಟಕದಿಂದ ಹೆಚ್ಚು ಹೆಚ್ಚು ಅಭ್ಯರ್ಥಿಗಳು ನಾಗರೀಕ ಸೇವೆಗಳಿಗೆ ತೆರಳಲಿ ಎಂಬುದೇ ನನ್ನ ಆಶಯ.

ಕನ್ನಡಾಂಬೆಗೆ ಜೈ!!!!!!

GS 2 and 3 Strategy

By Balaji D K , AIR 36

Dear Friends,

Many of you have requested me to pen down strategy for General Studies (Mains). I don’t intend to give any strategy for GS-1, since it is more of studying from standard books and writing answers. Then, I’m left with the task of drafting strategy for GS-2 and GS-3.

General Remarks

GS 2 & 3 are more, nay, all about CURRENT AFFAIRS (CA). However, the ability to connect CA to conventional subject matter is also needed, at least to some extent.

Thus, the prime source for these papers is THE HINDU. If you keep track of THE HINDU’s editorials and lead articles for about 8-10 months, that would provide you the required content to answer most of the questions.

Now, comes the most pertinent question of most aspirants. Is it mandatory to read THE HINDU daily and make self-notes? The ‘ideal’ answer to this question is a resounding YES. However, this may not be practicable for most aspirants because they are first-timers and have to invest more time in mastering fundamentals and standard books; Or they find the English written in THE HINDU too complex; or they may not have the required skill to pick exactly what is required for exam from those articles and because of so many such reasons. If you fall in any of these categories, don’t feel bad. It is just human to be so.

Such aspirants may have to follow a slightly distinct strategy. Here insightsonindia.com can be of great help. You can do like this.

For 3-4 days, randomly go through the answers written for SECURE questions on insightsonindia.com and find out the aspirant who writes ‘quality answers’ regularly. Everyday you can just go through answers written by that aspirant. Here, I must acknowledge that I regularly followed the answers written by MSI (Mohammad Sameer, CSE 2014, AIR 564). Make notes from that. Ardous task is greatly simplified and precious time is saved. A word of caution – This approach should be followed only if you are not able to read THE HINDU regularly.

Despite giving this short-cut, I emphasize that the best approach is to read articles on THE HINDU and writing answers regularly on insightsonindia.com.

Second, the notes you make about a particular issue should not be fragmented. It should be brought at one place. To elaborate, suppose you come across an article on pros of LAND ACQUISITION BILL today and you make notes about it on, say, Page 1. Next week, another article on the cons of LAND ACQUISITION BILL is published. Thus, by the time second article is published, say, 10 pages notes is ready pertaining to other articles. Please don’t make the notes of second article on LAND ACQUISITION BILL on page 11. Please use a stick-note and paste the summarythe of new article on Page 1. Alternately, you can write the notes of second article in d free spaces available (if any) on Page 1; or add a fresh page between Pg 1 and Pg 2 and name it as Pg 1A.

This approach to notes-making is very important, since you would get points on multi-dimensional perspectives about an issue at one place. This helps you in constructing a multi-dimensional and comprehensive answer in the exam hall. Bear in mind, multi-dimensional answers always fetch you above-average marks.

Third – let your notes not be a repetition of sentences from the source. Please make them in your own words. Try to make notes with fewer words. Concise notes need not mean incompleteness. Your notes should be consice and complete at the same time. If your notes is verbose, you can’t remember it. What’s the point in making notes of something that cannot be remembered and used in exam answers. Sheer waste of time and energy!!!

Fourth – Your notes should have a few important key words being put in a box (for highlighting purpose). To illustrate, in the notes on LAND ACQUISITION BILL, words like SIA, Consent Clause, Multi-crop land, etc should be highlighted. In your revisions (if possible), rather than simply glancing over the notes, first see the key words and try to recollect what it may mean. Then, see the notes and glance through.

Fifth – Answer Writing – I did not attach much importance to the words, “comment”, “Examine”, “Critically Analyse” and so on (Justify is an exception). I just went ahead to frame a standard-type answer. This was my approach. You can try this at your own risk. The exam-WRITING is literally a race against time. Hence, I was not confident that I had the ability to frame different type of answers to suit ‘literal’ meanings of such words. So, I decided to just ignore such words. You may be smarter than me and you may have the wisdom to answer differently, in the short-span of time. If that is the case, you can go ahead.

My standard approach was to start the answer with the meaning of the issue as crisply as possible. To illustrate, for a question of ‘Judicial Activism’, I used to start answer as “Judicial Activism implies judiciary activating legislature and executive to discharge their duties in letter and spirit. Another illustarion, for a question on global warming, the answer could start as “Global Warming implies rise in the average global temperature”. Women Empowerment means making women as powerful as men in all spheres of life.  Please observe that I used to derive the meanings from the issue nomenclatures themselves. Judicial Activisim – “….. activating…..”; Women Empowerment – “…… as POWERFUL as….”. Thus, this was the obvious introduction to any question.

After introduction, I addressed the requirement of the question. Here, I made a habit to make it multi-dimensional. To illustrate, suppose an answer on causes of FARMERS’ SUICIDE. Majority of the candidates mention only about unscrupulous money-lending, lack of access to insititutional credit, lacunae in agricultural insurance delivery and so on. However, please observe that only economic cause is mentioned in this answer. Even though more causes are mentioned, all the causes mentioned are economic causes. Thus, such answers are uni-dimensional. In my answers, I consciously avoided this. I used to bundle all such economic causes into a single point. Other points could be social stigma attached to being a defaulter(=social cause), lack of moral support and psychological strength (=psychological cause), absence of political and bureaucratic will and absence of farmers’ representatives at the policy-formulation level (=political cause) and so on. Thus, what I intend to stress is that don’t just restrict yourself to more visible and obvious ‘points’, think a little deeper to find out some oft-forgotten ‘points’. For every answer, think in one dimension, you get one point. Think in another dimension, you get one more point. Third dimension gives you third point. Thus, your answers get formed easily. You need not have to worry at all.

Next crucial thing in answer-writing is SUBSTANTIATION. Whatever ‘point’ you write, try to justify it with some piece of statistics, research finding or an illustration. This, according to me, is very very important. Because, it projects that you are a well-informed person. At the same time, you would be treated as a person who would not simply gossip, but talk everything with facts. (SUBSTANTIATION may not be possible for every ‘point’ in every answer. Nonetheless, try to do it as much as possible).

Now, I know what is lingering your mind – how to remember so much ‘figures’. It is tough to remember numbers. I have a self-discovered solution for this.

  • Remember statistics only in PERCENTAGE (Thus, you have to remember only 100 different numbers, at max)
  • Don’t remember the decimals involved in PERCENTAGE. Just round them off.
  • Try to link those percentages with your life. To illustrate, contribution of agriculture sector to GDP is 13%. My mom’s birthday is on October 13. So, I just link them and it is easier to remember. You can try linking those ‘numbers’ with birthdays, vehicle numbers, distance between places you often travel, your academic marks/percentage and so on.
  • If you find this is also difficult, please round off percentages to the nearest multiple of 5. Then you have to remember only 20 different numbers. Here, while quoting such ‘numbers’ in answers, use such qualifying words as APPROXIMATELY, SOMEWHERE AROUND, CLOSE TO and so on.

As far as possible, mention the sources of those ‘points of SUBSTANTIATION’. It gives credibility to your mention of the same. Now, you should be thinking – remembering ‘numbers’ and research findings itself is a herculeanh task; then how to remember sources also. Solution – reduce the sources and stick to very few sources like ECONOMIC SURVEY, NSSO surveys, prsindia.org and a few others. Then it is not very difficult to remember the limited sources.

While going through the Economic Survey, make a separate notes of statistics.

Finally, prepare a manual of ‘numbers’ and glance them everyday. Don’t make it bulky. A few such statistics that should always be remembered are – GDP growth rate for current year and projected rate for next year; contribution of various sectors to GDP and employment dependence on those three sectors; fiscal deficit, revenue deficit, current account deficit; GER at primary and higher education (for all, boys, girls, SC, ST); ASER survey findings strictly one or two) to throw light on quality of the education; budget allocation to EDUCATION as a percentage of GDP); IMR, MMR, (for India and Bangladesh plus MDG targets for the same), number of doctors per 1000 population; budget allocation to HEALTH as a percentage of GDP; percentage of MPs with criminal background, percentage of female MPs, (information available in the website of ‘Association for Democratic Reforms’); performance of Parliament, I.e., Lok Saha and Rajya Sabha, as reflected in average hours of sitting, average number of bills passed per session, number of bills gullotined, number of bills passed within 5 mins (information available on.prsindia.org). These statistics should be on your tongue tip always.

Be smart in using these ‘numbers’ to suit the demand of question. To illustrate, if you have to praise the development of HEALTH sector, write that ‘India has made a impressive reduction in MMR from 212 to 178 per 100000’. If you have to mildly criticize, then you can write, ‘even though India has been successful in reducing MMR from 212 to 178 per lakh, the performance is lower in relation to other developing countries’. Same ‘numbers’ are used with different tones, to suit the demands of your argument.

Finally the ‘conclusion’ part of your answers. As everyone says, conclusion has to end on an optimistic note. However, your optimism should also reflect that you are not blind to the challenges and obstacles associated with that optimism. So, your conclusion can be structured as below:

  • If in the answer you have mentioned ‘pros’, in conclusion, you quote ‘cons’ as well (just quote, don’t explain). Later, say that since ‘pros’ outnumber ‘cons’, we should gear up to nullify ‘cons’ and realize ‘pros’.
  • If in the answer you have mentioned both ‘pros’ and ‘cons’, in the conclusion you can quote (=not explain) the ways to overcome negatives. And say that these steps have to be strictly implemented to ensure realization of advantages and so on.
  • If in the answer you have mentioned only ‘cons’, in conclusion mention that there are ways to overcome these ‘cons’ and it is absolutely possible to overcome them.
  • In conclusion, always mention that the issue or resolution of the issue would lead to promotion of ‘public interest’, realization of ‘spirit of constitution’, safeguarding ‘the unity and integrity of nation’, achievement of ‘equitable development of society/national’ and so on.


GS 2

The major sources for GS 2 other than THE HINDU articles include

  • Bill summaries, Articles, committee reports on prsindia.org
  • Articles and ‘Ask a Question’ feature on idsa.in (for International Relations)
  • Debates on BIG PICTURE program of Rajya Sabha TV (Summaries of these are available on insightsonindia.com)
  • INDIA AND THE WORLD program (for International Relations – summary available on insightsonindia.com)

Try to use the following in your answers to improve their quality.

  • Articles of the constitution – You need not have to remember every article from 1 to 395. Just remember important articles pertaining to Fundamental Rights and Directive Principles of State Policy. Knowing this much is adequate to use in most answers. To illustrate, while answering a question on BAN ON COW SLAUGHTER, mentioning the DPSP that directs government to ban that along with the article would enhance quality of your answer. (This is just an example. This, in no way, reflects my stand on Cow Slaughter. In the current scenario, I found this example to be more pertinent. So I have used it).
  • Use the words mentioned in our preamble – SOVEREIGNTY, SOCIALIST, DEMOCRACY, REPUBLIC, EQUALITY, JUSTICE, LIBERTY, FRATERNITY, UNITY INTEGRITY and INTEGRITY profusely in your answers. While using these concepts, write like this “…… this is in accordance with the’ ideal of ‘democracy’ as enshrined in the preamble of our constitution”. The words just mentioned above have been so much overused by everyone that if you just mention those words, it may not be taken as a part of constitution. So, it is advisable to establish an explicit link between such words and PREAMBLE.
  • SC and HC judgments and cases – Quote those judgments and cases in your answers. For example, cases like Naz Foundation case, Bachan Singh case and others have to be mentioned wherever needed. Don’t just remember that Transgender is ruled to be third sex by Supreme Court in a ‘recent judgment’. Please also try to remember which judgment it is.
  • Committees – Know about the important committees constituted by the government. No need to mug up all recommendations. Just remember the essence of recommendations. For example, Jeevan Reddy Committee recommended for the revocation of AFSPA. Shanta Kumar Committee recommended for reduction in the coverage of population under National Food Security Act and so on (This is important for GS 3 as well). You can use this for SUBSTANTIATION puroposes. The summary of recommendations of major Committees is available on prsindia.org

GS 3

Besides, articles on THE HINDU, following sources can be useful:

  • Indian Economic Survey
  • Selective study of 12the Five year Plan Document
  • Yojana (Read Yojana issues selectively. Rather than reading the whole magazine, it is advisable to thoroughly read the first article that is comprehensive most of the times).
  • Budget Highlights – one should be smart enough in using this. This can be used to infuse optimism into your answers. Quoting the budgetary allocations and expressing that such allocation would lead to a positive outcome can bring optimism to your answers. To illustrate, while writing on ‘sustainable development’, I vagualy remember writing that “in this budget, Rs. 100 crore allocated towards NATIONAL MISSION ON SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE is likely to promote sustainable development”.
  • Articles in idsa.in throw adequate light on north-east insurgency and occasionally on naxalism as well.

I’m not an authority on Science and Technology. So, I don’t want to write anything on that.

[PS – I cannot guarantee mind blowing marks by following this strategy. However, this strategy may help you not score below-average score. One more important thing is that there is no success in mains without writing practice. Write as many mock tests as possible. That can indeed guarantee you a fantastic score. Merely following the strategy outlined above or any other strategy without adequate writing practice would indeed give you below-average marks.

I have secured 93 in GS 2 and just 75 in GS 3 by following this strategy].

I wish all of you a heartfelt ALL THE BEST


Balaji DK, IAS

(CSE 2014, AIR 36)

My Journey to IAS – Not a destination, rather the beginning of a new journey

By Fouzia Taranum B – AIR 31, CSE 2014

Hello everyone!

I do not know how helpful this brief write up is going to be, but since so many of you have asked, and I have benefitted from similar write ups of seniors, here goes.

I started preparing for UPSC in December 2010, having quit my job as a Business Analyst with Tata Consultancy Services Ltd. In CSE 2011, I cleared with AIR of 307, thereby joining the IRS (IT). The attempt in 2012 didn’t see me improve my rank/service. I was under training in NADT, Nagpur, and decided to go ahead and settle into the service, which I was beginning to like, understand and enjoy.

However once posted, from June 2014, I started feeling the difference in service – IAS and IRS – and the job profiles. I felt that I should try one last time for my dream service, and give one last attempt. So a few weeks before the prelims of 2014, I jumped into preparation mode. It helped that I was posted at my hometown, so I had the support of my parents in this venture.In fact, the result was a surprise to my family/relatives/friends, as not many people other than my parents, sisters and my IRS batch mates knew that I was giving another attempt!

I reread the standard books, along with the sources available online like Insightson India. I think a big part of the improvement in rank to AIR 31 this year was due to me growing as a person, becoming more mature, having seen more of this world, and a creeping sense of practicality and realism in approach, compared to an over-idealistic one earlier.UPSC is actually looking for more rounded personalities with problem solving approach and an analytical mind. The UPSC journey should be looked at in this light, and not merely reading of books.

Work + Study

It was very important for me that I do not compromise on my present work, while I gave this attempt. I had to be more than justifying the salary that I was taking home.

At office, I would concentrate on work, and at home on preparation efforts and personal obligations. While it was difficult and often tiring, I hope I did justice to both, my aspiration to be in IAS through my preparation efforts, along with the requirements of my job as an Assistant Commissioner of Income Tax.

The balance came from management of time. There will never be enough time, rather we have to make time for everything.

General Strategy

  • No leave before prelims (no proper study before prelims either, thanks to strength in CSAT)
  • Focussed preparation after getting a fair idea that I will clear the prelims (having checked with various answer keys available online)
  • 30 days leave before mains
  • 5 days leave for interview
  • Studying atleast 2 hours a day (working days) – depending on my work day either early morning or late night – August to December 2014. Also managed to take a few Fridays off after the prelims results, so as to get 3 days of continuous reading done, or to compensate for the days when I had not prepared due to obligations at work.
  • Finishing weekly newspapers (piled up) and studying for about 4 hours a day (during weekends/holidays)
  • A general study, unlike the crazy detailed study of 2011-12
  • Focussed on revising my strong areas (economy, geography, etc) and re-preparing for my weak areas (history, culture, sociology, etc) along with preparing for the newly introduced topics.
  • Focussed on current events and ensured that connected GS related gyan was revised (e.g: LS elections were on – read up all election related polity).
  • Chose Sociology as optional because pub ad wasn’t performing too well, socio takes lesser time to prepare in comparison and enjoyed reading this subject more, even though I have never studied this subject academically.
  • Didn’t read too many books, so as to not feel lost at the end of it all – stuck to the books (or the particular sections in the books) that I really enjoyed reading.
  • Use of YouTube videos for World History, as this was newly introduced.
  • Ethics – GS Paper 4 – Just read up a few solved papers on the Vision website and realised that our “UPSC orientation” is sufficient – Looked up definitions on all the terms used in the syllabus and made short notes. Didn’t read anything beyond that. Scored 113/250, and was largely just giving “true” answers to most situational questions/case studies.
  • Couldn’t practise writing due to lack of time – I know that if I had, I could have really upped my game.
  • Gave many examples in my answers, and tried to keep them interesting to whoever was to read them.

Use of Time

There is a dire need for short, productive periods of reading through the day. For instance, reading up the news feeds after returning from lunch at office, listening to the news/saved videos while travelling to and from office, etc. Such reading of 15 minutes in short bursts 4-5 times a day really adds up and contributes immensely to our efforts.

Also, I used to take up a subject I like and enjoy when I felt like I have a lost cause in my hands and was feeling depressed. This really helps make our efforts more productive. However, we need to be cautious that we do not let other subjects suffer from neglect. Be judicious in the time you allot to various “sub-subjects”.

Writing style

  • Short, to the point, bullet points, covering as many dimensions and aspects as possible
  • Didn’t focus on word limits too much – some answers I looked for more space and for some I just jotted down half a page
  • Didn’t really fill pages, wrote as much as I knew
  • Interlinking of topics
  • Use of diagrams/charts
  • Underlining of important points as I write
  • Points in the margin (like a summary box, to help me and the evaluator)


GS (scored 405):

  • History – Bipin Chandra, Spectrum
  • World History – Norman Lowe, YouTube Videos, Online resources
  • Geography – NCERT (11th and 12th), G C Leong, Atlas
  • Art and Culture – Insights on India questions and answers, NCERT History pdfs online
  • Polity – Lakshmikanth, Online resources
  • Economy – Newspapers, Frank ISC Economics (11th and 12th), Economic Survey
  • Environment – Newspapers, ICSE Text book, Online/Wiki for all the various protocols, committees, etc.
  • Ethics – Just read up definitions online and read some answer scripts put up on Vision IAS website.
  • Current Affairs – Newspapers, Insights on India Daily Current Events (daily + revision 2 weeks before Mains), Vision IAS monthly Current affairs notes, Sriram IAS summary Current affairs notes, general reading online on relevant topics
  • Newspapers – The Hindu, Times of India, Editorials from Economic Times
  • Magazines – None this year due to paucity of time (used to read Frontline and Wizard in 2011-12)

Sociology (Scored 257 L)

Paper 1

  1. C N Shankar Rao – Intro to socio
  2. Crack IAS notes – ppr 1
  3. Haralambos – very important book according to me (understood Mead thanks to this book!)
  4. IGNOU BA Notes – selectively. (Did all units on thinkers thoroughly)
  5. Ritzer for Thinkers
  6. Upendra Notes – for thinkers and introduction only
  7. Collins Dictionary for Sociology – for concept clarity

Paper 2

  1. C N Shankar Rao – Indian socio
  2. Crack IAS notes – ppr 2
  3. IGNOU BA Notes  – selectively
  4. Nagla for Indian Thinkers
  5. Upendra Notes – for movements only
  6. Nadeem Hasnain – Tribal India selectively
  7. Ram Ahuja – very few topics
  8. Year Book for programmes/schemes
  9. Spectrum History – for national movement
  10. Online resources for few topics
  11. Newspaper articles/editorials on social issues

In conclusion

A lot of resources available online, have a look and settle for what works best for you, but don’t waste time on the internet unnecessarily.

Never lose focus, never lose faith. Stay consistent in your efforts. Believe in yourself! Don’t forget to keep learning and to keep improving!

Though a certain amount of luck is required, hardwork does pay! I have not studied in big “Ivy League” institutions, nor do I have any civil servants in my family. I come from a very simple, ordinary, loving household, where education has never been very important. Still thanks to my parents’ support and my efforts, I could make it. So can anyone who sets her mind to it.

All the best for Prelims 2015 and the journey ahead! I hope you realize all your dreams.